DARK PICTURE OF HUMAN RIGHTS
• A total of 1038 people lost their lives in various kinds of violence
• Turkish security
forces had killed 204 people
• 131 people were
killed by clandestine forces
• 179 people
claimed they were tortured under interrogation.
• 9 journalists
• 31 journalists
were beaten and harassed by the state security forces
• 53 publications
were seized upon court orders.
In its 6-month-report ending as of June 30, the
Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TIHV) brought up various new
allegations against the government claiming that the security forces
had started to terrorize the people and that the government was not
respecting human rights but had thrust the country into "a dark human
According to the TIHV Report dated July 7, 1992, a
total of 1038 people had lost their lives in various kinds of violence
since the beginning of the year. Turkish security forces had killed 204
people and at least 179 suspects had claimed they were tortured
while under interrogation.
More than 30 journalists were subject to harassment
and attacks by security forces and a total of 53 publications including
newspapers, magazines and books were seized upon court orders.
The Foundation report claimed that various rights of
individuals in Turkey, including their right to live, were being
It said that the first six months of the year
"witnessed numerous practices and actions against human rights," and
added that society had been terrorized while rights were violated in a
way which was no better than in the past.
"No attention was paid again to torture claims.
Books, magazines and newspapers were seized. Those who spoke and wrote
were silenced and sent to prisons. Extrajudicial methods, under the
name of the struggle against terrorism, were put into practice and the
public were informed by a single side, with the truth turned
distorted," the report said.
It also warned that tension had increased in Turkey
due to the failure to find a solution to the Kurdish question, while
security forces beat up demonstrators or opened fire on them.
In the said period, a total of 11 people died under
detention in "suspicious circumstances," said the report, while 16
people were killed when security forces opened fire on demonstrators.
35 people were killed in raids on their houses by security forces and
51 people lost their lives in various incidents, including
extrajudicial executions and opening fire without having a target
The total death toll for such incidents was put at
102, adding to the 92 demonstrators killed by troops in southeast
Turkey during the celebrations for the Kurdish new year of Newroz last
March; 341 others were wounded in the Newroz incidents. Adding to the
205 people killed by security forces' gunfire, a total of 549 security
officials, civilians and militants were killed in this period and 131
people were killed in "unidentified assassinations," normally meaning
they were killed by clandestine forces.
Three people were reported as missing, they
disappeared without leaving any clues.
Most of the assassinations were carried out in the
troubled Southeast region, where 86 people were killed and 45 others,
identified in association with the radical Islamic Hezbollah
organization, were gunned down.
In attacks on shopping centres, vehicles and similar
places, a total of 44 people, including 13 children, were slain and 83
others were wounded.
Meanwhile, attacks on security and judicial
personnel also continued in an intensified manner in the said period,
with 39 policemen, 21 village guards, six soldiers, four intelligence
officers, two night guards, two village chiefs, two drivers, a State
Security Court prosecutor and 32 other officials killed.
In armed clashes in the Emergency Law region, said
the report, a total of 287 militants from various Kurdish and Turkish
left-wing organizations were killed while 224 people including security
personnel and civilians also lost their lives.
The report stressed that democratic improvements had
not been efficient in the said period and that repressive measures
stayed in force both against the people and the media. In 12 different
incidents, a total of 31 journalists were beaten with clubs and boots
and subject to insults by the state security forces. Attacks on
journalists with the use of guns, a well as bombs, also continued.
In all of its 53 pages, the report gave examples of
various forms of human rights violation witnessed in Turkey over the
past six months from the killing of demonstrators to death under
torture and/or attacks on crowds.
In this period, there were seven instances in which
security forces opened fire on demonstrators and nine incidents during
which troops of police had raided "suspected" safe houses and killed
There were 29 cases where people lost their lives
either because they did not listen to a security forces' warning to
stop, or just because someone with an official title opened fire
without selecting a target. In one case, Turkish war planes bombed a
village in the Emergency Law region while in another, a military
helicopter machine-gunned a peasant.
In a separate entry on torture in Turkey, the report
gave specific information on a number of torture cases, including the
eleven people who either died or merely "disappeared" while under
The report also said there was pressure on political
parties in Turkey and cited as an example the case launched against the
Peoples' Labour Party (HEP), as well as efforts by the Ankara State
Security Court prosecutors' office to lift the immunity of 22
parliamentarians in a bid to put them on trial with a demand for
RIGHTS ACTIVISTS DISSATISFIED WITH PACE OF REFORMS
One month later, in their evaluation for the Turkish
Daily News of August 3, 1992, principal human rights activists of
Turkey indicated that the majority of promises in the coalition
protocol and the government program have not even been discussed. They
say that torture continues and that violations of human rights are
worse than before.
Chairman of the Human Rights Association (IHD)
Nevzat Helvaci stressed that he does not consider the government
efficient, neither in its policies for democratization and openness,
nor in the implementation of those policies. He added that very little
improvement could be seen in the past 250 days. He complained that even
arrangements which did not require a change in the law could not be
carried out, and said, "For example, torture could have been prevented,
but they could not do it, and torture still exists. I am gradually
losing hope. If they achieve good things from now on, of course we are
going to give support."
He also said that he considers democratization
necessary in every part of the country, and said the state should
behave within the law and ha no right to act like a terrorist. Helvaci
stressed that the government has not been effective in the fight
against terrorism, and the state will of course take necessary measures
against armed people. However, it should seek ways to catch them alive,
Chairman of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey
(TIHV) Yavuz Önen indicated that not being able to put the
democratization package onto the agenda had caused great
dissatisfaction, and said, "The government has been too late in
arrangements concerning democratization and human rights. We have even
been given the impression that the public is being distracted."
Önen, who asked the government to comply with their
promises, said that from now on they want a democratic system where the
civilian are the important ones. He added that human rights violations
are worse than in previous periods: torture exists, there is a lack of
democratic rights and liberties, the right to free assembly is limited,
and the anti-terror law article which protects civil workers who commit
acts of torture still applies. He also continued that the 250-day
period has historical importance for Turkey. He said today,
democratization promises should be kept without distracting the public.
"Otherwise, the Sept. 12 (coup) might continue with all of its
organizations and laws."
Ercan Kanar, the head of the IHD's Istanbul branch,
said that the government has not yet kept any of the promises which the
two coalition partner parties separately made before the election and
included in their coalition protocol.
When asked to compare the present government's
approach to the human rights issue with that of the former Motherland
Party (ANAP), Kanar said the same negative approach continues. "What is
worse is that the coalition government continues its negative approach
while using words such as ‘democracy.’ With these demagogic sayings,
the government is trying to pacify public opposition and reaction
against the violation of human rights." While the government repeats
that it wants to encourage a pluralist, participatory and reactionary
public, instead the state, itself, has become reactionary, pointed out
STATE OF EMERGENCY EXTENDED
Despite the government’s earlier promises to lift
state of emergency, on June 26, the National Assembly decided once more
to extend it for four months in 10 South-eastern provinces inhabited by
Angered by the style of the government’s “decision
in principle” to extend the State of Emergency along with the mandate
of the coalition forces based in Turkey to protect Iraqi Kurds,
deputies of the main opposition Motherland Party (ANAP) and the Welfare
Party (RP) walked out on the vote.
Only 260 out of 450 deputies were present for the
vote. The extension of the State of Emergency was accepted with 223
votes in favour and 37 votes against.
The People’s Labour Party (HEP) deputies and a
little part of the Social Democrat Populist Party (SHP) deputies voted
against, while the majority of the SHP deputies were accepting the
extension together with the Correct Way Party (DYP) and the Nationalist
Labour Party (MCP) deputies.
ÖZAL VETOED JUDICIAL REFORM LAW
President Özal, on June 8, sent the law which
stipulated significant changes in the Criminal Trial Procedure Code
back to Parliament for reconsideration.
The vetoed law stipulates compulsory presence of
defense advocates at interrogation; testimony obtained through torture
or ill treatment will not be accepted as evidence; suspects of crimes
which require prison terms of less than six months shall not be
detained. It also reduces the detention period to four days instead of
current 15 days.
These reforms were vetoed by Özal on the grounds
that they would hinder Turkey’s war on terrorism and that certain
articles in the package were against the advice of the National
The President’s veto shows once more that the
National Security Council, composed of the army generals and some
ministers, still keeps its powers and imposes anti-democratic policies
to the National Assembly and the Government.
SOCIALIST PARTY BANNED
Turkey’s Constitutional Court ordered on July 10 for
the closure of the Socialist Party (SP), accusing it of acting against
the integrity of the country. The verdict, which also rules for the
transfer of all SP assets to the State Treasury, is seen as another
major hitch in Turkey’s democratization drive as well as a message that
certain power circles in this country are not prepared to accept
political activities to solve the Kurdish issue.
As the highest judicial body in Turkey, the
Constitutional Court took its decision with ten votes against one.
Chairman Dogu Perincek and members of the defunct SP
executive board held a press conference in front of the Prime Ministry
building on July 11 to protest at the decision. They pointed out that
their struggle would continue under the roof of the newly-founded
Labour Party (IP).
Claiming that the SP had been closed because it was
“a party which expressed the Kurdish reality” in Turkey, Perincek
branded the Court verdict as “a bombardment of the tie of affection
between the Turkish and Kurdish people.”
Before the decision on the SP, the weekly 2000e
Dogru had claimed the party was to be closed on orders from the
military, charging the court members with cooperation with Turkey’s
The magazine also published past letters sent by
Court Chairman Yekta Güngör Özden to leading officials of the military
regime after 1980, expressing his “thankfulness and appreciation” of
their conduct after the September 12 coup.
In another move contrary to the freedom of
association, the Chief Prosecutor of the Turkish Court of Cassation has
recently asked the Constitutional Court to close down the People’s
Labour Party (HEP) on similar grounds.
Observers say the Constitutional Court is expected
to take a similar decision with regard to HEP in the coming weeks. The
HEP program and activities are known to be more radical than those of
the SP on the Kurdish issue.
Earlier, the Constitution Court had closed down
another left-wing party: the United Communist Party of Turkey (TBKP).
ASSASSINATION OF JOURNALISTS
The number of journalists who have been shot this
year rose to nine with five new murders committed in last two months.
All but two of these journalists wrote for left-wing or pro-Kurdish
periodicals that cover the on-going guerrilla warfare in southeast
Turkey between the PKK and security forces. Four of the assassinated
reporters wrote for Özgür Gündem, a daily newspaper that began
publication on May 30, 1992.
These murders suggest an on-going campaign to
silence the dissident press in the southeast.
Despite government assurances that the murderers
will be caught, they are still at large. Moreover, as declared by
Helsinki Watch, there is little evidence that serious investigations
are taking place. The government's attitude was revealed in a comment
by Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel, who declared on August 11, "Those
killed were not real journalists. They were militants in the guise of
journalists. They kill each other."
After the most recent murder of journalist, that of
Hüseyin Deniz on August 10, Turkey's Press Council Chairman Oktay Eksi,
in a telegram sent to Prime Minister Demirel, criticized the government
of having failed to fulfil its promises of peace and stability for
Turkey and pointed out that in no era of Turkish history had so many
attacks been carried out against journalists.
Journalists killed in the coalition government
period and the dates of their murders are:
HALIT GÜNGEN, 22, a reporter for the left-wing
weekly 2000e Dogru, who was killed in the Diyarbakir office of this
magazine at 8 p.m. on February 18, 1992. Just before the assassination,
Güngen had written to the February 16 issue of the magazine a cover
story on the relationship between the Hezbollah (Party of God), an
Islamic terrorist group, and the Counter-Guerrilla Organisation.
CENGIZ ALTUN, 24, the Batman correspondent for the
weekly Yeni Ülke, was killed by six bullets fired into his back on
February 24 as he was on his way to work. A Yeni Ülke editor alleged
that Altun had recently been threatened with death at Gercus
Gendarmerie Station. Altun had written articles about the alleged
activities of Counter-Guerrilla; the most recent had been published in
the February 2-8 issue.
IZZET KEZER, a journalist for the daily Sabah, was
shot and killed by security forces in Cizre on March 23, during the
violence that followed the celebration of the Kurdish New Year, Newroz.
During a state-imposed curfew, Kezer and other journalists emerged from
their hotel waving white flags: No shooting was going on at the time.
Kezer, at the head of the group, reached an intersection and was shot
dead by security forces who fired from an armored personnel carrier.
BÜLENT ÜLKÜ, correspondent of a local daily in
Bursa, was killed on April 1.
MACIT AKGÜN, a reporter for Yeni Ülke, was found
hanging from a telephone pole near Cölova village in Nusaybin on June
2. Akgün had been missing for three weeks, having last been seen in
Nusaybin. According to the Anatolia News Agency, an autopsy showed that
Akgün had been strangled ten days earlier. A statement found on his
body saying that "he was punished because he was a traitor" was
allegedly signed by the PKK.
HAFIZ AKDEMIR, a reporter in the Diyarbakir office
of the daily Özgür Gündem, was killed by a single bullet shot into the
back of his head on June 8. The murder was committed at 8 a.m., fifty
meters from his home in Diyarbakir. Özgür Gündem reporters stated that
they had received telephoned threats for several days. Akdemir had
recently interviewed human rights delegations visiting the region and
had written about them, as well as about the workings of the
counter-guerrilla forces in the region.
CETIN ABABAY, the Batman correspondent for the
journal Özgür Halk, was shot in the head at 7.30 p.m. on July 29 by
three unidentified men while on his way home; he died in Diyarbakir
University Hospital on July 30.
YAHYA ORHAN, 30, the Gercüs (Batman Province)
correspondent for Özgür Gündem, was shot dead by unknown assailants on
July 31 at about 10.30 p.m. Özgür Gündem reported that Orhan had been
stopped on the street and threatened. According to his family, Orhan
received a phone call at his home on July 31 in which he was told, "We
have removed all journalists. Now it is your turn." Sounds of gunshots
were then heard on the telephone.
HÜSEYIN DENIZ, 36, the Ceylanpinar (Urfa Province)
correspondent for Özgür Gündem, was critically wounded by one bullet
fired into his neck while on his way to work on August 9. he died on
August 10. Deniz was also the regional correspondent for the daily
BURHAN KARADENIZ, 19, a Diyarbakir correspondent for
Özgür Gündem, was critically wounded by a bullet in his neck fired by
unknown persons on August 5 in Diyarbakir; he was paralysed below the
waist. Karadeniz had been detained by police for five days following
the visit of several HEP deputies to Diyarbakir on July 10 on the
anniversary of the death of Vedat Aydin, a human rights activist and
There is general belief that secret state forces are
behind the murders and local officials prefer to turn a blind eye to
them because they always target controversial newsmen. Most of the
killings take place in a very professional way. The victim is followed
and shot with a single bullet or with bullets fired from a single gun.
The assassins literally walk away.
Helsinki Watch, in its press release of August 1992,
said: "HW is deeply disturbed by what appears to be a systematic
campaign to silence the press about events in southeast Turkey. We urge
the government to take immediate steps to investigate these killings
and to prosecute those responsible."
The International Federation of Journalists
condemned, on September 9, the failure of the Turkish Government to
carry out proper investigations into the killing of journalists.
In a coordinated day of international action, which
saw journalists from Argentina to Denmark, taking their protests to
Turkish Embassies, the IFJ General Secretary Aidan White met with the
Turkish Ambassador to Belgium, Yildirim Keskin, and submitted a dossier
of cases for action by the Turkish authorities.
"Turkey claims to be democratic and have freedom of
the press, but the world of journalism is not convinced," said Mr.
White. "The Government must examine every attack against the media and
every act of violence against journalists and publish its reports.
A majority of the IFJ's 81 national unions in 64
countries also joined protests, both nationally and regionally.
In France, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) condemned
Turkey on July 20 for violations of press freedom, including the death
of journalists in strange circumstances, imprisonment of reporters and
RSF said the reported repression contradicted
promises by Prime Minister Demirel for a new press law guaranteeing
freedoms and urged European Community members to bear it in mind when
considering Turkey's application to join the community.
According to the RSF, 10 journalists were in jail
for example for "having photographed an unauthorized
demonstration or insulted the president in a satirical magazine." So
far this year, authorities seized 21 issued of about 12 newspapers and
magazines, the RFS said.
MURDER OF HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS
By the side of the assassination of journalists, a
number of human rights activists too have been victims of violence
carried out by the security forces and subversive pro-government
Human rights activist Siddik Tan was killed on June
20 in a house in Batman in southeast Turkey. According to reports
received from reliable sources, the murder was carried out by three
unidentified armed attackers. Mr. Tan was an active board member of the
Batman branch of the Human Rights Association of Turkey (IHD).
Tan had been injured in an earlier attack on July 2,
1991, by a bomb that had been placed in his car. Tan's 10-year-old son
and a friend were also injured by the car bomb; the car was demolished.
Helsinki Watch urges the government
On the killing of Tan, Helsinki Watch urged the
Turkish Government to investigate promptly and thoroughly Mr. Tan’s
death; to end its raids on the offices of the Human Rights
Association(IHD); to prevent the detention, torture and trials of IHD
members; and to investigate the death threats lodged against IHD
officers and members. Helsinki Watch also urged the government to bring
to justice the killers of human rights activist Vedat Aydin, murdered
in Diyarbakir in July 1991.
Helsinki Watch, in a press release of July 1992,
reports the following cases as regards human rights activists:
“The July 1991 car bombing of Siddik Tan was one of
four attacks on the IHD that took place during a short period of time
in 1991 . On June 18, 1991, an explosive device destroyed the car of
lawyer and IHD member Mustafa Ozer. On June 25, 1991, the Diyarbakir
office of the IHD was bombed, causing extensive damage.
The most serious attack during June and July of 1991
was the murder of Vedat Aydin, 39, one of the founders of the
Diyarbakir branch of the IHD. On July 5, 1991, Mr. Aydin was taken from
his home by several armed men who identified themselves as police
officers. His body was found outside Diyarbakir on July 8; his skull
had been fractured, both legs were broken, and his body contained 15 or
16 bullet wounds. To date, no one has been charged with Mr. Aydin's
murder or with the other acts of violence directed against IHD members.
In early May, a leaflet containing death threats
against 28 people was widely circulated in southeast Turkey. All 28 are
Kurds; all are either members of Parliament or have spoken out on
behalf of Kurds in Turkey; some have investigated human rights
violations against Kurds. Four are members of the Human Rights
Yavuz Binbay, president, Van IHD,
Sekvan Aytug, president, Sirnak IHD,
Faik Tunefan, member, Istanbul IHD, and
Ömer Hazar, member, Istanbul IHD.
The leaflet was signed by Islami Cihad-B - Islami
Yumruk (Islamic Holy War-B -Fist of Islam. According to Amnesty
International, it is widely believed that Turkish security forces were
Ercan Kanar, the president of the IHD Istanbul
Branch, had reported earlier that the association's leaders were
receiving death threats (Cumhuriyet, February 14, 1992). In May 1992
the IHD Head Office reported that its branches had been subjected to
such threats (Cumhuriyet, May 14, 1992).
Arrest and Torture
Sekvan Aytug, the president of the Sirnak IHD, was
detained in Sirnak on his return from a trip to Ankara on May 14, 1992.
Police did not disclose the reason for Aytug's detention, but he had
recently provided information to human rights delegations and the press
about human rights abuses that took place in Sirnak during Newroz, the
Kurdish New Year, in March 1992. His name was one of those appearing on
the list of 28 people threatened with death, above. On May 29. Aytug
was formally arrested. Sirnak IHD members who visited. Aytug in prison
reported: "During our visit we noticed bruises and wounds on his left
eyebrow, feet and knees. Both his statements and what we observed
indicated that Mr. Aytug had been tortured in detention."
Raids on IHD Offices
The Istanbul IHD branch was raided by police on
March 21, 1992; police seized documents and announcements. The same
branch was raided again on April 24; membership lists and other
documents were confiscated.
On May 14, the head office of the Human Rights
Association announced that its branches had been subjected to raids,
searches and closings in recent weeks (Cumhuriyet, May 14). In late
May, the IHD Bursa branch was raided by police.
Trials of IHD officials
On February 4, 1992, a trial began at Istanbul State
Security Court against Esber Yagmurdereli, Ragip Duran and Atilla Aycin
because of speeches they had made at a September 18, 1991, meeting
arranged by the Istanbul branch of the IHD. The defendants are charged
under Article 8 of the Anti-Terror Law with "making separatist
propaganda." Each faces a possible two- to five-year prison sentence.
On November 29, 1991, six leaders of the Istanbul
branch of the IHD went on trial at the Istanbul State Security Court,
charged with organizing a solidarity evening for Iraqi Kurds. The
prosecutor asked that the association be closed, as well as that its
leaders be given prison sentences.
Free Expression Denied
On March 21, 1992, members of the Ankara branch of
the IHD were prevented by police from placing a wreath on behalf of
Newroz in Ankara Yuksel Street. Police destroyed the wreath, beat IHD
board member Alpaslan Erturk and detained IHD member Yildiz Sik
(For the further cases of violence concerning human
rights activists, see State-Terror in June-July)
THE SECURITY FORCES SPARKED OFF NEWROZ BLOODSHED
A detailed report by the Human Rights Foundation of
Turkey (TIHV) on the bloodshed during celebrations for the Kurdish new
year of Newroz in March 1992, claimed this week that security forces
had opened fire on demonstrators first - leading to the deaths of a
total 92 people.
The report recalled that a statement made by
President Turgut Özal on January 31, promising a massive operation in
southeast Turkey, had served to escalate tension in the region,
although Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel announced in a statement on
March 9 that Newroz would be celebrated freely.
Against all official promises, said the report, the
Emergency Law governors office issued a series of bans prior to the
Newroz celebrations and sent these in the form of decrees to other
governorates. "In a decree," the report said, "transportation between
villages after 5:00 p.m., working in the mountains or fields and taking
animals out were banned." As part of the extraordinary measures to
prevent Newroz, even the sick were required to obtain documents and
special permission from the gendarmerie forces in order to travel to
Although Demirel made a last minute statement before
March 21 saying that anyone could gather and celebrate the Newroz
occasion on condition that violence was not used, the report stated
that security forces opened fire on civilian demonstrators at the
beginning of the celebrations -- sparking off further clashes.
According to the foundation, the first incident occurred in the Gercus
township of Batman, where security forces opened fire on a group of
about 250 people who lit a bonfire as part of the traditional Newroz
celebrations on March 20. Two people aged 20 and 16 were killed in this
incident while eight others were wounded.
In Sirnak, where a total of 38 people died and 120
were wounded on March 21, security forces opened fire on a group of
civilians who refused to be frisked by police while marching to the
Republic Square. As clashes continued, the outlawed Kurdish Workers
Party (PKK) also became involved and by the evening of the same day, a
curfew was declared in the province. However, clashes continued on
March 22 and 23, with the PKK staging attacks on military barracks and
The report claimed that amid this turmoil,
security forces opened fire on many houses believed to be occupied by
PKK militants and that in reaction to the developments, a group Iynched
police officer Osman Catana in his house.
Of the people identified as terrorist casualties
after the incidents, six were between the ages of 30 and 40 and four
were between the ages of 45 and 70. Identifying the victims by name,
the report said a five-year-old girl and nine-year-old boy were also
among the casualties. Most of the other victims were under 18. In
nearby Cizre, where thousands gathered together to celebrate Newroz,
security forces opened fire on demonstrators. The attack was
accompanied by military marches played on police loudspeakers.
"Tension escalated when many people were shot and
fell to the ground," said the report, adding that reporter Izzet Kezer
of the daily Sabah was also killed by bullets fired from an armored
police vehicle although he was carrying a white flag. During clashes in
Cizre between March 21 and 25, the report said a total of 24 people had
died and 60 others were wounded. The Human Rights report indicated that
violence was recorded only in areas where security forces had
intervened in demonstrations, and cited the province of Van and Adana
In Van, clashes erupted after an intervention which
led to the declaration of a curfew. Once the curfew was declared, the
report claimed, "security forces terrorized the city" and raided the
Human Rights Foundation Van branch as well as the Peoples' Labor
Party's (HEP) provincial bureau. Much damage was recorded in the raids,
it added. Although demonstrations in the Narlica and Daglioglu
districts of Adana passed with only small incidents, the report said
security forces opened fire on demonstrators during the night, leading
to a clash. A 20-year-old demonstrator was killed while eight people
including a child and a policeman were wounded. Thirty-year-old
Necmettin Ekici was killed in a similar incident at a different part of
the city in which six more people were wounded.
In Nusaybin, where paramilitary village guards
allegedly opened fire on villagers marching to the city center on
Newroz day, one person was killed and two others were wounded, although
no further violence was recorded. On March 22, however, police opened
fire when some 8,000 people marched toward the city center the report
A total of 19 people were killed and 52 others were
wounded in the following clashes.
In Hakkari's township of Yuksekova, similar
incidents were recorded, with an initial attack on demonstrators by
special teams at the cemetery, followed by gunfire being opened on
demonstrators in the town. A 14-year-old child was killed and six
others were wounded in the incident. In the morning, security forces
opened fire on a group of 3,000 people who were gathered in front of
the governate building, the report said. In all, five people died and
38 others were wounded in four days of violence.
The report said that although officials claimed
clashes had occurred between the PKK and security forces, resulting in
these casualties, only two policemen were killed in the region during
this wave of violence, which raises serious questions on the legitimacy
of the official argument.
It also added that had the PKK truly been involved
in that sense, the casualty toll should have been
STATE TERROR IN JUNE-JULY
2.6, in Ankara, about 50 health personnel placed a
black wreath in front of the Interior Ministry for protesting against
the torture applied to 3-month pregnant nurse Nazli Top at the Istanbul
Political Police Centre between April 27 and May 7. Police immediately
intervened in the demonstration and detained eight people.
2.6, in the province of Rize, security forces
arrested thirteen people.
2.6, in the town of Salihli (Manisa province), local
HEP Chairman Ali Kacan was detained by police.
2.6, the Diyarbakir SSC sentenced an alleged PKK
militant to 22 years and six months and another to three years and nine
4.6, in Elazig, security forces raided a number of
houses. During the operation three persons were shot dead and 25 people
4.6, in the town of Kiziltepe (Mardin province), a
teacher named Seydos Aydogan was assassinated by the Hezbollah.
4.6, in the town of Kulp (Diyarbakir province),
during the funeral of a PKK militant, security forces opening fire on
the crowd wounded five persons.
5.6, a meeting organized by the Greens Party on the
occasion of the World Environment Day was not allowed by the governor
5.6, in Kiziltepe, during the funeral of Seydos
Aydogan, security forces opening fire on the crowd killed one person,
wounded three and arrested 20 people.
5.6, the Hezbollah, stopping a minibus on the road
Midyat-Dargecit (Mardin province), assassinated Fevzi Anik and Ahmet
7.6, in the district of Bismil (Diyarbakir
province), university student Aziz Biber was stabbed dead by the
Hezbollah and his body was left to the cemetery.
7.6, the Penal Court N°18 of Ankara sentenced 17
university students to prison terms of up to six years for an
unauthorized demonstration they held in December 1989 at the Education
Faculty of the Gazi University in Ankara.
10.6, a meeting on the trade union rights of public
servants was banned by the governor of Istanbul.
10.6, in the district of Tatvan (Bitlis province), a
minibus was stopped and 13 voyagers inside were shot dead by
10.6, the Governor of Hakkari refused to authorize
the opening of the local section of the Education and Science Workers"
Trade Union (EGIT-SEN) in the province.
11.6, in the district of Silvan (Diyarbakir
province), Doctor Mehmet Emin Ayhan was assassinated by the Hezbollah.
11.6, security forces arrested seven people in the
district of Mutki (Bitlis province).
13.6, in Izmir, HEP local chairman Abdurrahman Dayan
and 96 other persons were detained for having chanted Kurdish songs
during a wedding ceremony.
13.6, in the district of Kiziltepe (Mardin
province), 26 year blacksmith Seymuz Ibrahimoglu and his brother, Hasan
Ibrahimoglu, were assassinated by unidentified gunmen.
14.6, in Mardin, local HEP Chairman Veysi Parilti
and another party official, Hasan Güler, were taken into custody.
16.6, during their trial at the Izmir SSC, five
high-school students accused of belonging to an underground
organization were beaten at the court-room for having shouted political
16.6, IHD Antalya Chairman Mustafa Sahin said that
in last 20 days three persons had been subjected to torture. A 15-year
old boy too was tortured at the Sea-Port Police Station on June 8.
16.6, in Gaziantep, five people announced at a press
conference held at the local IHD Office that they had been subjected to
torture by the Political Police during their detention between
May 18 and 27.
16.6, in Izmir, the governor did not allow a meeting
on the question of the unity of socialists.
16.6, in Izmir, three persons were indicted by
virtue of Article 146 of the TPC for having attacked a police car. Each
faces capital punishment.
16.6, in Malatya, the Association of Folk Education
(MFED) was closed down by the order of the governor.
16.6, security forces detained five villagers in the
district of Cinar (Diyarbakir province) and five in the district of
17.6, seven people were sentenced by the Malatya SSC
to prison terms of up to 3 years and 9 months for aiding PKK.
17.6, the Human Rights Foundation (TIHV) reports
that a political detainee, Hasan Güldal might be killed under torture
at the Artvin Gendarmerie Station. According to eye-witnesses, Güldal
had been arrested on May 23 and subjected to torture. His whereabouts
are unknown since May 28.
18.6, security forces detained 21 villagers in the
districts of Nusaybin and Mazidag (Mardin province).
19.6, in the town of Silvan (Diyarbakir province),
security forces raiding a house shot dead four people and wounded
three. Among the victims is also a HEP official, Felemez Günes.
19.6, two children, one 14 and other 17 years old,
accused of having participated in PKK actions were sentenced by the
Diyarbakir SSC to heavy prison terms. They were first sentenced to
capital punishment by virtue of Article 125 of the TPC, but the
sentence was later commuted to 12 years and 6 months in prison for the
younger and 16 years and 8 months for the other.
20.6, in Batman, IHD official Siddik Tan was shot
dead during a raid on a house. He had already been wounded last year,
on July 2, at a bomb explosion.
20.6, in Istanbul, the slums of Kücükarmutlu were
raided by more than 2.000 policemen and all houses searched one by one.
31 people were reportedly detained.
21.6, the trial of 21 students having taken part in
a left-right quarrel at the Uludag University three months ago began at
the Criminal Court N°3 of Bursa. The prosecutor demands prison terms of
not less than three years for each.
22.6, in Batman and Nusaybin, three persons were
shot dead by unidentified gunmen.
22.6, thousands of public servants carrying out a
protest march since Istanbul were stopped by police at the entrance of
Ankara. During the police intervention, hundreds of demonstrators were
brutally beaten and 30 people detained.
23.6, in Adana, thirteen alleged TIKKO
(Workers'-Peasants' Liberation Army of Turkey) militants were detained.
23.6, in Gaziantep, eight people were arrested for
having shouted some slogans during a soirée for Turkish-Kurdish
24.6, a 22-year old pregnant woman, Menice Kirtay
was subjected to torture and sexual harassment at the Silvan Police
Station. She had been detained after a police raid on June 19 during
which his husband Ali Kirtay was shot dead. She lost her baby because
of introducing club into her vagina.
26.6, in Ankara, political police detained nine
alleged PKK militants.
26.6, in the district of Idil (Sirnak province),
village protectors shot dead two municipal workers.
26.6, the congress of the Railway Workers' Union was
banned by the Ankara Governor on grounds that public servants have no
right to union.
26.6, the Malatya SSC sentenced six alleged PKK
militants to prison terms of up to 12 years and 6 months.
27.6, in Bitlis, nine people were placed under
arrest by a tribunal for participating in PKK activities.
27.6, in Diyarbakir, Abdullah Aksoy was shot dead by
27.6, in Gaziantep, twelve persons were detained for
having chanted Kurdish songs during a wedding ceremony.
29.6, the trial of 34 people, accused of
unauthorized May Day celebrations, began at the Izmir SSC. Each faces a
prison term of up to 5 years.
30.6, in Silvan, three persons, Halim Yasar, his son
Adil Yasar and his brother Nazim Yazar were shot dead by the Hezbollah.
30.6, in the town of Nusaybin (Mardin province),
more than 3 thousand people held a demonstration in protest against
police operations and arrests in the region. Security forces supported
by tanks and panzers arrested more than 200 demonstrators.
1.7, in the district of Silvan (Diyarbakir
province), two persons named Mehmet Bugdayci and Recep Alparslan were
reportedly tortured to death by the Hezbollah.
2.7, in Cizre, a 3-day police operation resulted in
the arrest of more than 100 people.
2.7, in Van, security forces arrested six people.
2.7, the Izmir SSC sentenced three alleged PKK
militants to 12 years and 6 months in prison each.
2.7, the trial of 17 left-wing university students,
arrested after a conflict with right-wing students in Bursa, began at
the Istanbul SSC.
2.7, the trial of six alleged Dev-Sol (Revolutionary
Left) members began at the Istanbul SSC. Each faces imprisonment of up
to 22 years and 6 months. The defendants declared that their deposition
had been obtained under torture and presented medical reports
certifying traces of torture.
3.7, in Urfa, 38-year old Ramazan Sat was shot dead
by the Hezbollah.
5.7, the Izmir SSC banned the distribution of a
tract entitled "End to the State Terrorism and Special War", prepared
by the HEP. Besides, the HEP officials were indicted for this tract by
virtue of the Anti-Terror Law.
7.7, a political refugee, Ali Ekber Basaran, was
detained at the Ankara airport when he returned from France after a
8.7, in the district of Bismil (Diyarbakir
province), 15 villagers were detained by security forces. Two of the
detainees are 12 years old.
8.7, the trial of the leaders of TURK-IS (Turkish
Trade Unions Confederation) began at the Penal Court N°15 of Ankara for
inciting workers to strike. Each faces a prison term of up to three
9.7, in Izmir, lawyer Kemal Kirlangic reported that
his client Rahmi Akbulak as well as his two children, Sahbender and
Muzaffer Akbulak had been tortured on July 4 after a dispute with
9.7, in Izmir, police announced the arrest of 50
alleged PKK militants.
11.7, in Ankara, police raiding a house shot dead
two persons. Police authorities claimed that the victims had committed
12.7, in Istanbul, Ortaköy Cultural Centre was
raided police without a court warrant and detained 20 people inside.
12.7, three people were shot dead by unidentified
gunmen as they were going in a car from Sirnak to Uludere.
13.7, in Ankara, a series of anti-PKK
operations resulted in the arrest of 30 people.
13.7, in Istanbul, police raiding a house shot dead
14.7, in Istanbul, a coffee-house keeper, Numan
Akcal alleged that he had been tortured at police station.
15.7, the Malatya SSC sentenced three TDKP
(Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey) members to 15 years in prison
16.7, in Bursa, a forwarding agent, Muammer Evren
claimed that he as well as his wife and boy had been subjected to
torture at police center when they went there for lodging a complaint
about a theft.
16.7, in Istanbul, ten people were detained by
police during the funeral of Nurten Demir, shot dead by police on July
17.7, in Istanbul, HEP official Cihan Sahkat was
detained by police raiding his home.
17.7, in Istanbul, police dispersed a workers'
demonstration by using force and wounded eight people.
17.7, in the town of Viransehir (Urfa province), a
police operation resulted in the arrest of five people, including local
HEP Chairman Cecen Topcu.
17.7, HD announced that 50 people detained at the
Political Police Centre of Izmir had been subjected to torture.
18.7, in Batman, a street vendor, Mustafa Saltikap,
was shot dead by unidentified people.
19.7, in Adana, 12 alleged PKK members were detained
by political police.
19.7, in Batman, an anti-PKK operation resulted in
the arrest of 20 people.
19.7, in Istanbul, during a police raid on a house,
three persons were shot dead on the spot. Another person escaping from
the raid was killed in another house. Police charged them with being
involved in TIKKO actions. The Association for Freedoms and
Rights (Özgür-Der) accused the police of executing innocent people with
19.7, in Istanbul, ten people were detained when
they were commemorating a victim of police terror.
19.7, in the district of Dogubeyazit (Agri
province), security forces detained more than 50 people during a 3-day
19.7, in the town of Nusaybin (Mardin province), a
35-year old shopkeeper, Mehmet Dagdelen, was shot dead by unidentified
20.7, in Istanbul, a street vendor named Abdulbaki
Kara alleged that he was subjected to torture during his 3-day police
detention between 11-14 July.
20.7, in Tatvan, the headman of the Düzcealan
Village and nine other villagers were detained during a police
raid. One of the detainees, Hayat Oral is 16 years old.
22.7, nine of 12 alleged PKK members detained by
police in Adana in last week were placed under arrest by a tribunal.
23.7, a 55-year old person, Nurettin Aslan was
reportedly killed by police during his interrogation in Istanbul. The
police authorities claimed that Aslan had thrown himself from the 8th
floor of the building.
23.7, in Aydin, local HEP chairman Lezgin Culduz and
three other party members were detained by police.
23.7, security forces carried out a series of
arrests in Adana.
24.7, in Batman, Seyfettin Özdemir was shot dead by
24.7, in Diyarbakir, Seyhmuz Güneyli and Salih
Güneyli were shot dead by unidentified persons.
24.7, in the town of Ceylanpinar (Urfa province), 15
tradesmen were detained for having shut their shops in a protest action.
25.7, in the town of Kiziltepe (Mardin province), a
dentist of Assyrian origin, Yakup Yöndem was shot dead by the
26.7, in Batman, three persons, Cevdet Tasan, Mim
Nesim Orman and Masum Erol were shot dead by unidentified people.
26.7, in the town of Uludere (Hakkari province),
twelve people were detained by police.
27.7, a group of public servants were attacked by
police teams as they were carrying out a demonstration before the
Health Ministry in protest against insufficient wage hikes. Seven of
the demonstrators were seriously wounded.
27.7, a 26-year old Kurdish woman detained during an
anti-PKK operation in Izmir said that she had been beaten by police
agents in front of her children and later subjected to torture at the
28.7, in Antalya, police teams raided the Habibler
and Sinan quarters inhabited by Kurds and detained nine people.
28.7, two members of the Human Rights' Committee of
the National Assembly, Urfa deputy Halil Ibrahim Celik and
Istanbul deputy Halit Dumankaya, were not allowed to visit the Ankara
Political Police Headquarters and to see the detention conditions there.
28.7, unidentified gunmen stopped a bus in Hakkari
and shot dead a 8-month pregnant woman, Naciye Özer, and a 2-year old
girl, Nurcan Özatak.
29.7, in the town of Nusaybin (Mardin province), a
printer named Eyüp Aktas was shot dead by unidentified people.
30.7, in Nusaybin, Bedirhan Günes who was shot by
Hezbollah militants died in a hospital.
PERSECUTION OF THE MEDIA IN JUNE-JULY
2.6, the administration of the Ankara Central Prison
banned detainees to read a series of publications such as Yeni Ülke,
Yeni Demokrasi, Halk Demokrasisi, Kristal-Is Bulteni, Wellat, Secme
Yazilar, Mücadele, Ekimler, Cagdas Hukuk Bülteni.
3.6, the editor of the political magazine Ak-Dogus,
Sinami Orhan was detained for serving his 18-month imprisonment to
which he had been sentenced for insulting Atatürk in an article.
9.6, a prison term of one year and four months
against cartoonist Ismail Pehlivan, editor of the weekly Girgir, was
approved by the Court of Cassation. He had been sentenced by a penal
court in Istanbul in virtue of Article 158 of the TPC for having
insulted President Özal in a cartoon.
9.6, the issue N° 34 of the weekly Yeni Ülke was
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
16.6, the issue N° 35 of the weekly Yeni Ülke was
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for having criticized the Prosecutor of
the Ankara SSC.
16.6, the issue N° 18 of the monthly Komün was
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC.
17.6, publisher Hikmet Kocak was sentenced by the
Ankara SSC to a fine of TL150 Millions ($20.000) for having published
Edit Polat's book entitled We Turned Twilights into Newroz [Kurdish New
Year] by virtue of Anti-Terror Law. The said book had already been
17.6, journalist Adnan Gerger was indicted by virtue
of Anti-Terror Law for his book entitled To Whom Belong The Back of
Mountains? He will be tried by the Ankara SSC.
18.6, former HEP Aydin Chairman Lezgin Culduz and
Ismet Dag were sentenced by the Izmir SSC to prison terms of 20 months
and fines of TL41.6 Million ($6.000) each for having published a
calendar "containing separatist propaganda."
19.6, the Nusaybin correspondent of the daily Özgür
Gündem, Vahap Aslan was detained by a police team raiding his house.
24.6, a book entitled My Life in Brief, written 70
years ago by Ekrem Cemil Pasa, was confiscated in Ankara for some
paragraphs criticizing Atatürk.
24.6, two correspondents of the daily Özgür Gündem,
Mehmet Senol and Rauf Yildiz were detained in Diyarbakir.
28.6, the Nusaybin correspondent of the daily Özgür
Gündem, Vahap Aslan alleged that he was subjected to torture during his
one-week police detention.
29.6, the latest issue of the weekly Azadi was
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
1.7, the issue N° 37 of the weekly Yeni Ülke was
confiscated for separatist propaganda.
3.7, a collection of poems edited by Cemsid Mar,
Contemporary Kurdish Legends, was confiscated by the Ankara SSC in
virtue of the ATL. The publisher of the book, Mehmet Bayrak was
sentenced to a fine of TL100 Million ($13.500).
3.7, journalist Kadir Misirlioglu was put in prison
for serving a 20-month prison term to which he had been sentenced for
an article he wrote in 1977.
9.7, the Ankara SSC confiscated Dr. Ismail Besikci's
book entitled The Law of Tunceli- 1935 and the Dersim Genocide for
separatist propaganda. The book had already been confiscated two years
ago by virtue of Article 142 of the Turkish Penal Code. But this
decision had been lifted after the abrogation of the said article.
12.7, the governor of Istanbul banned the posters
prepared by the Socialist Union Party (SBP), claiming a peaceful
solution to the Cyprus question.
12.7, political review Emegin Bayragi was
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC by virtue of Anti-Terror Law.
12.7, the new issue of the weekly Mücadele was
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC on charges of praising an outlawed
13.7, in Ankara, journalist Medeni Ayhan,
representative of the review Özgür Halk, was arrested together with 29
other people during anti-PKK operations.
13.7, in Istanbul, police stopping a car belonging
to the daily Özgür Gündem beat journalists Gökhan Kürüm and Cafer
Yildiz and destroyed all the newspapers in it.
18.7, a concert of the Group Kizilirmak in Antakya
was forbidden by the Governor of Hatay.
19.7, the issue N° 39 of the weekly Yeni Ülke was
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for containing a report of the
International of Christian Democrats on the Kurdish Question.
21.7, a correspondent of the daily Özgür Gündem, Ali
Dogan was detained by police in Tunceli.
22.7, in Istanbul, two correspondents of the weekly
Gercek, Ilkay Demir and Metin Göktepe were detained and beaten by
police as covering a protest action of municipal workers.
23.7, in the town of Ergani (Diyarbakir province),
the Arkadas Bookshop was raided by a special police team and
shop-keeper Ümit Öztürk was beaten and wounded on the face.
25.7, two correspondents of the daily Özgür Gündem,
Bahatin Özen and Ayten Aydin were detained by police as they were
covering the visit of HEP deputies in Mardin.
26.7, a book entitled Our Flag Is To Wave Throughout
the Country, published by the Haziran Publishing House was confiscated
by the Istanbul SSC for propaganda of an outlawed organization.
26.7, a poster on Kurds, prepared by the Socialist
Union Party (SBP) was banned by the Governor of Izmir. Besides, the
Izmir SSC decreed to confiscate the poster.
27.7, police authorities refused to deliver a
passport to Yasar Kaya, publisher of the daily Özgür Gündem.
27.7, two correspondents of the daily Özgür Gündem,
Abdullah Arisoy and Ali Komak, said that during their 15-day police
detention in Cizre between 1-16 July they had been subjected to
torture at police station. Although released, a tribunal has recently
issued an arrest warrant for both of them.
28.7, the issue N°4 of the monthly Mücadele was
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for having containing articles in
favour of Dev-Sol.
28.7, Ankara representative of the monthly Özgür
Halk, Medeni Ayhan said after his release that he was subjected to
ill-treatment during his 15-day police detention and witnessed to
torture applied to three other detainees.
30.7, local HEP chairman in the province of Aydin,
Lezgin Culduz was arrested by the Izmir SSC for supporting the PKK.
30.7, a book entitled My Memoirs Concerning the
Kurdish National Struggle in Dersim, edited by journalist Mehmet Bayrak
on the memoirs of Nuri Dersimli, was confiscated by the Ankara SSC for
separatist propaganda. Besides, a legal proceeding was started against
30.7, a book entitled The Question of Woman and
Family, containing articles of PKK leader Öcalan, was confiscated by
virtue of the ATL.
31.7, the publisher and chief editor of the weekly
Mezopotamya in the district of Kiziltepe (Mardin province), Cemil
Aydogan, was tried at the Diyarbakir SSC for separatist propaganda. The
prosecutor demanded 5-year imprisonment and a fine of TL 50 Million
($7.000) by virtue of the Anti Terror Law.
31.7, the prosecutor opened a legal proceeding at
the Istanbul SSC against publisher Yasar Kaya and responsible editor
Selcuk Gür of the daily Özgür Gündem for having published and interview
with the PKK leader Öcalan.