22e Année - N°237
38 rue des Eburons - 1000 Bruxelles
Tél: (32-2) 215 35 76 - Fax: (32-2) 215 58
Rédacteur en chef: Dogan Özgüden
- Editrice responsable: Inci Tugsavul
COMMUNIQUE INFO-TURK SUR L'ATTENTAT CONTRE LE PRESIDENT DE L'IHD
Ce jour, le 12 mai 1998, à 12h20, le président de l'Association
des droits de l'homme de Turquie (IHD), M. Akin Birdal, a été
blessé par balles par deux inconnus au siège de l'association
Qui que soient les auteurs de cet attentat, tout le monde en connaît
très bien les instigateurs.
Les militaires turcs faisaient depuis quelques semaines un usage
démesuré des "aveux" attribués à un ancien
commandant de la guérilla kurde pour tenter de régler leurs
comptes avec tous ceux, journalistes, hommes politiques, hommes d'affaires,
qu'ils considèrent comme "ennemis" de l'Etat.
Présentées comme des extraits des interrogatoires de
Sakik, ancien commandant du PKK capturé par les troupes turques
dans le nord de l'Irak le 13 avril et interrogé depuis par les services
de sécurité turcs, des nouvelles sensationnalistes visent
à incriminer des militants des droits de l'Homme et certains hommes
politiques d'être à la solde du PKK. Akin Birdal serait accusé
par Sakik d'être "davantage un combattant du PKK" que lui-même.
L'Allemagne, la Syrie, l'Iran, l'Arménie et la Grèce,
plusieurs hommes d'affaires turcs et des journalistes renommés seraient
également cités par Sakik comme étant des sympathisants
A ce titre, deux éminents chroniqueurs ont été
suspendus par leur journal à la suite de ces campagnes de désinformation
médiatique orchestrée par l'Armée.
Selon la presse turque, Semdin Sakik aurait également déclaré
que le PKK était responsable de l'assassinat de l'ancien Premier
ministre suédois Olof Palme en 1986. Toutefois, M. Lars Nylen, chef
de la police nationale suédoise a déclaré qu'"il y
a plusieurs années, la commission d'enquête Palme a mené
des investigations approfondies à propos d'allégations similaires
venant de Turquie, mais elles n'ont mené à rien".
Suite à cette déclaration, le premier ministre turc
Mesut Yilmaz a dû dire que "on ne sait pas ce qu'il [Sakik] a dit
et même s'il l'a dit, on ne sait pas sous quelles contraintes il
était. Pour tout le monde, l'important sera ce qu'il dira au tribunal
quand il passera en jugement".
Pourtant, les "tireurs inconnus" à la solde de l'Armée
turque n'ont pas attendu le jugement du tribunal et ont pris comme cible
le principal défenseur de la paix et des droits de l'homme dans
ce pays à l'anti-chambre de l'Union européenne.
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
The monthly report by the Human Rights Association (IHD) regarding
the violations of rights has been published. According to the IHD data,
225 people died during the armed conflict in the Emergency Rule Region
(OHAL), and 12 people have been the victims of unsolved murders.
In the report, which said that nine people have died due to extra-judicial
means and torture, it has been claimed that 70 people faced torture.
Osman Baydemir, deputy general manager of the IHD, said that the
April issue of the human rights report was published following a 10-day
delay because of the assassination attempt on Akin Birdal, head of the
IHD. Baydemir evaluated the arrest of two people who allegedly attempted
to kill Birdal as a positive development. Pointing out that the power behind
the attack should be exposed, Baydemir said, "Similar attacks will follow
this one, since the Susurluk scandal has not been cleared up and the illegal
organizations that have been established within the state have not been
Baydemir, who read the IHD's April report regarding the violations
of rights, indicated that violations in April have increased when compared
to March's data.
The summary of the human rights violations in April is as follows:
Violations regarding the right to live
-- Unsolved murders 12
-- Deaths in extra-judicial murders, torture or custody 9
-- Deaths due to armed conflicts (soldiers, militants, village guards)
-- Activities against civilians - deaths 2 - injuries 28
-- Claimed missing persons 4
-- Actual or alleged torture 70
-- Taken into custody 5,579
-- Number of arrests 117
-- Attacked, or faced oppression or threat 47
-- Evacuated or burnt-down villages 0
-- Attacks on prisoners in prisons 8
Violations regarding work life
One thousand three hundred ninety-eight people have been dismissed
from their jobs. This includes workers dismissed illegally.
Violations regarding freedom of thought and organizing
-- Places that were bombed and burned 12
-- Mass organizations, political institutions and publishers closed
-- Mass organizations, political institutions and publishers attacked
-- Published materials that were seized or banned 22
-- Punishment of imprisonment or fine considered 230
-- Punishment of imprisonment or fine given 9
-- Number of prisoners of conscience 133
MAY DAY CELMEBRATION
ATTACKED IN TURKEY
May Day was celebrated enthusiastically in Kurdistan despite efforts
by the Turkish police to prevent rallies taking place.
Five thousand people gathered outside the main post office in Diyarbakir
to celebrate May Day. The people held a sit-down protest after police set
up barricades to prevent a march taking place. Permission was not given
for a May Day rally in Urfa where trade unionists read out a press release.
In front of the Genel-Is union office 5 thousand people attended
a rally in the city of Antep. Five tousand people also held a rally in
Batman, where slogans were shouted in Turkish and Kurdish. Around three
thousand people held a rally in Malatya where 21 people, including HADEP
members were detained before the celebrations in Dersim and Elbistan joint
rallies were organised by HADEP and EMEP. Many people were injured in police
attacks on May Day celebrations in Istanbul and many were detained. Large
rallies were held in Ankara, Izmir, Mersin and Adana. Kurdish people living
in Turkish cities joined the rallies, shouting slogans demanding peace.
The May Day rally in Istanbul was organised by KESK, DISK, EMEP and
HADEP. There was a large police presence, particularly in Taksim. Police
attacked a group attempting to join the rally, which was held in Abide-i
Hurriyet square. More than 100 people were detained.
In Ankara 10,000 people attended a rally which passed off peacefully.
In Izmir around 25.000 people marched to the Republic Square, shouting
slogans like "Long Live May
Day" in Turkish and Kurdish and "Long Live President Apo" and "Kurdistan
will be the graveyard of fascism".
Police did not intervene, despite a much larger rally than last year.
Thousands of people attended May Day rallies in Adana and Mersin.
SEIZE AND HARRASS A DEMONSTRATOR
National Movement Party-MHP members, also known as "grey wolfes"
seized a person participating in the May Day rally in Istanbul and beat
him in their party building.
One man was seized by MHP members and police outside the MHP building
in Okmeydani and taken inside. The young man was then hung from the second
floor window and beaten in front of the press and crowd before being taken
100 MHP members waiting in front of the building also badly beat
a journalist and attacked 3 women and confiscated the notebook of a Reuters
Correspondent attempting to record the incident. The fate of the man beaten
in the MHP building is not known.
Reuters reported the event as follows:
Turkish right-wing militants and riot police badly beat a leftist
protester on Friday at the headquarters of a far-right political party
after mob violence at a May Day rally.
Reuters Television filmed "Grey Wolf" rightists hanging the man out
of the first-floor window of the Nationalist Action Party building as police
other members of a 100-strong crowd of rightists below beat him.
The man was dragged screaming back into the building. Rightists then
forced reporters and camera crews away from the scene in Istanbul's Okmeydani
district. They later seized a Reuters journalist's notebook.
A television channel said the Grey Wolf rightists, named after a
legendary she-wolf from Turkic Central Asia, kept on kicking and beating
inside the building, injuring him severely. Police later took him hospital
for treatment, it said.
The RTV videotape showed a young rightist howling in triumph and
giving the two-fingered Grey Wolf sign after the attack. The rightists
also roughed up three young women who appeared to be passers-by.
State-run Anatolian news agency said one of its correspondents was
taken to hospital with slight injuries after he and other journalists were
beatenin a side street during the incident.
An official at a police station 150 metres (160 yards) from thebuilding
told Reuters by telephone they were not aware of any trouble.
Human rights groups say extreme rightists have infiltrated the police
force, particularly in the mainly Kurdish southeast where police teams
often sport Grey Wolf insignia and stickers on their weapons.
Riot police wielding batons and firing water cannon earlier dispersed
stone-throwing leftist militants at a large May Day rally nearby.
Witnesses said dozens of demonstrators were injured, most of them
beaten by police, and more than 100 detained.
Turkey's riot police, called "Robocops" because of their plastic
body armour, are often accused of heavy handedness at public events.
The European Union cited concern over Turkey's human rights record
among its reasons for putting the country's membership bid in cold storage
at the end of last year.
May Day in Turkey has a legacy of violence, with police and militant
groups frequently engaging in pitched battles.
Three demonstrators were killed in heavy fighting between leftist
rioters and police in 1996. Thirty-seven people died after suspected right-wing
gunmen opened fire on a May Day rally in Istanbul in 1977.
TURQUIE A NOUVEAU SUR LA SELLETTE DANS LE RAPPORT ANNUEL DE REPORTERS SANS
A la veille de la Journée internationale de la liberté
de la presse le 3 mai 1998, Reporters sans frontières a publié
son rapport annuel faisant le point sur les violations de la liberté
de la presse dans 140 pays. En 1997, 26 journalistes ont été
tués dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions et au 14 avril 1998, 102
journalistes étaient emprisonnés pour leurs activités
La Turquie est un des pays qui enregistre le plus de violations des
libertés à l'égard des journalistes. Selon le rapport,
en 1997, près d'une vingtaine de journalistes ont été
torturés en détention et au moins 255 ont été
interpellés ou incarcérés. Le procès des onze
policiers accusés du meurtre de Metin Goktepe, journaliste d'extrême
gauche battu à mort, est largement retracé avec ses rebondissements
dans le rapport. De même, l'édition de 1998 dénonce
la pratique de torture quasi systématique en Turquie et souligne
que "les collaborateurs d'organes de presse prokurdes ou d'extrême
gauche sont très souvent torturés dans les locaux des sections
en charge de la lutte antiterroriste. En 1997, au moins 16 journalistes
ont subi ce sort".
Toujours selon le rapport, 91 journalistes sont détenus en
Turquie "sans qu'il soit possible d'affirmer qu'ils le sont pour leurs
opinions ou pour avoir exercé leur profession". 62 journalistes
y ont fait l'objet d'agressions et 73 autres ont été menacés
ou harcelés en 1997 (estimation minimale). De plus, d'autres moyens
de pressions sont utilisés contre les journalistes, tels que des
pressions juridiques, administratives ou économiques; des procès
ont été organisés contre des journalistes appartenant
à au moins 44 médias turcs entre le 1er janvier et le 31
décembre 1997. 89 médias ont été suspendus
pour des périodes variables ou fermés ou encore supendus
pour une durée indéfinie et au moins 33 quotidiens ou périodiques
ont été saisis.
IN SCORCHING KURDS,
TURKEY BURNS ITSELF
STEPHEN KINZER (New York Times, May 3, 1998) Shortly after
dawn on a recent Monday morning, a military helicopter lifted off from
its base in Turkey's war-torn southeast and crossed the border into northern
Iraq. It is a border Turkey has ignored for the last few years, arguing
that it has a moral right to strike against rebel guerrillas who operate
from the Kurdish enclave on the other side.
Once inside Iraq, the helicopter landed near the town of Dohuk and
disgorged three dozen commandos dressed as Kurdish fighters. They set up
a roadblock and soon found their prey: Semdin Sakik, who had until recently
been a legendary commander of the insurgent Kurdistan Workers Party, known
as the PKK, but who had broken with his fellow guerrilla leaders.
The Turkish soldiers ordered him out of his car, blindfolded him,
drove him back to their helicopter and spirited him to a military prison
inside Turkey. The army made no official statement afterward, but a senior
prosecutor said Sakik would be charged with treason and could face execution.
The abduction reflected the battering-ram strategy that the Turkish
army has used against separatist guerrillas since the conflict began 14
The army has proven effective at capturing, killing, crushing and
destroying, so much so that the PKK is now in terrible disarray. Subtlety,
flexibility and creativity, however, are evidently not weapons in the military
The army's scorched-earth policy in the mainly Kurdish southeast
has given it great success on the battlefield, but has not won many hearts
and minds. Many Kurds in the region remain deeply resentful of the government.
Equally important, the United States and other foreign powers that want
to help Turkey have found themselves handcuffed by worldwide anger at the
way Turkey is conducting its war against Kurdish nationalism.
Some American and European officials hoped that the Turkish army
would be patient enough to wait and see where Sakik's split with his former
guerrilla comrades might lead. They thought that if left to his own devices,
he might have developed into a valuable anti-guerrilla spokesman and a
magnet for other defectors. But by storming in and grabbing him, the army
has guaranteed that anything he now says will be viewed with great suspicion.
This latest step will solidify the PKK ranks," predicted Safeen Dizayee,
a spokesman for the moderate Kurdistan Democratic Party, under whose protection
Sakik was living in northern Iraq when he was captured. "It was not the
right time and the right place to do this operation. It is a miscalculation."
Althouth Sakik has not been presented to the press, the army has
been leaking information about revelations he has supposedly made under
interrogation. According to these leaks, he claimed that two of Turkey's
most prominent and free-spirited columnists were secretly on the guerrilla
payroll; both denounced the charge as untrue and slanderous, but were suspended
from their newspaper jobs nonetheless.
Another leak claimed that Sakik had "confessed" that the PKK murdered
Prime Minister Olaf Palme of Sweden in 1986. The chief Swedish prosecutor
in the Palme case, Jan Danielsson, was unimpressed. "There is a strong
indication that the Turkish side is trying to discredit the PKK," he said
For years, foreigners and some Turkish intellectuals have been urging
the military to reassess its uncompromising opposition to Kurdish nationalism.
They believe that Turkey would be better served if it encouraged the growth
of Kurdish groups that could offer an alternative to Marxist guerrillas.
But the military, which oversees all policy on the Kurdish issue, has consistently
rejected that approach.
Three former members of Parliament from a pro-Kurdish political party
are serving 15-year jail terms after being convicted in 1994 of supporting
terrorism. One of them, Leyla Zana, has become a heroine to groups around
the world that seek to portray Turkey as a repressive country; her supporters
have even nominated her for the Nobel Peace Prize. "We tried to convince
the generals that they should embrace these folks and try to seduce them
away from the PKK," said a senior American official. "They wouldn't buy
A new pro-Kurdish political party emerged to replace the one to which
Ms. Zana belonged, but it has fared no better. In January all of its senior
leaders were arrested and charged with supporting subversion. Since then,
more than 200 other members of the party have been arrested.
The operation in which Sakik was seized also underlined other aspects
of Turkey's anti-guerrilla strategy. By moving so freely into northern
Iraq, the army showed it showed that it considers the Turkey-Iraq border
all but nonexistent. And by refusing to consult or even notify Prime Minister
Mesut Yilmaz in advance, they showed how far Turkey is from civilian control
of the military, a principle that the West considers a sacred pillar of
Western powers led by the United States cut the Kurdish region of
northern Iraq away from Baghdad's control after the gulf war in 1991, and
hoped to create an autonomous Kurdish statelet there. Turkey's leaders
never liked the idea, fearing that if it succeeded, it would inspire Kurds
inside Turkey to begin thinking of autonomy for themselves.
Fortunately for Turkish generals, Kurdish groups in the Iraqi enclave
quickly began feuding with one another, miserably botching the chance that
the West had given them. Their enclave dissolved into anarchy, and the
Turkish army has moved in to fill the resulting power vacuum.
For Sakik to have hoped that he would be allowed to live freely in
northern Iraq was unrealistic. He had been taunting the Turkish army for
years, and had killed many Turkish soldiers. His presence in northern Iraq
was a temptation the generals could not resist.
By capturing him, the generals believe they have settled an important
military score. Whether they have contributed to peace and reconciliation
in Turkey's Kurdish southeast, which must be their overriding long-term
goal, is far less certain.
TOP COURT TO TRY EX-MINISTER FOR GANG LINKS
A Turkish court, on May 4, ruled that the constitutional court should
put a former interior minister on trial for alleged links to criminal gangs,
a charge that carries a jail sentence of up to 15 years.
Anatolian news agency said an Istanbul court had referred the case
of Mehmet Agar to the top court under a rule that prevents lesser judicial
bodies from trying former ministers alleged to have committed crimes during
their time in office.
Agar, also a former police chief, resigned as interior minister in
1996 and later lost his parliamentary immunity along with another conservative
MP Sedat Bucak amid public pressure to clear up a security scandal.
The scandal erupted when a car carrying Bucak, a right-wing gangster
and a top policeman crashed. Bucak was the only person to escape alive
from the wreckage, where guns and silencers were found. He faces up to
20 years in jail on separate charges.
Agar is accused of abusing his position by providing false identity
documents to the gangster, who was wanted for murder. The MPs, both members
of former prime minister Tansu Ciller's True Path Party, deny the charges.
COURS DE KURDE SONT TOUJOURS INTERDITS EN TURQUIE
Yilmaz Camlibel, président de la Fondation de Recherche et
de la Culture Kurde (KURT-KAV) et Mehmet Celal Baykara, membre de la fondation,
ont été, mardi 5 mai 1998, acquittés par la Justice
Ils étaient accusés de donner des cours de kurde dont
l'enseignement et la diffusion sont interdits en Turquie. Les accusés
risquaient deux ans de prison s'ils étaient déclarés
Selon CILDEKT, la décision de la Cour a été
clémente car elle a pris en considération le fait que les
cours étaient privés et non ouverts au grand public.
Interrogé par l'agence Associated Press, M. Camlibel a déclaré
que le procureur n'avait pas l'intention de faire appel de la décision
mais qu'il était interdit à la fondation de continuer ses
cours de kurde.
Il a ensuite ajouté qu'ils étaient déterminés
à avoir gain de cause et a rappelé à ce titre que
dans une autre affaire la fondation poursuit en justice le ministère
de l'Éducation nationale pour que les cours de kurde soient autorisés.
FASCIST ATTACKS CONTINUE
Med-TV report (May 5, 1998)
Two more people have been murdered by National Movement Party-MHP
gangs in the last few days. The fact that the murderers of Kenan Mak strolled
away from the scene of the crime on 2 May in the town of Bolu leads support
to the claim that there is direct police support for these attacks.
Attacks have been mounting this year. On 7 January smit Tarho, a
history student at the University in Malatya was stabbed by fascists and
died 3 days later. No progress has been made in the trial of those suspected
of the killings most having been releaed.
7 students were wounded in an attack on a student hostel in Balikesir
and in january 40 progressive students were wounded in a fascist raid on
a hostel in Edirne where the assailants used knives and iron bars.
Following the murder carried out by MHP, also known as the grey wolves
gangs of a 21 year old student named Kenan Mak in Bolu on the 2nd of May,
other MHP gangs murdered a young Kurd, Bilal Vural, in Istanbul on 3 May.
The MHP Nationalist Action Party has stepped up its attacks, with
police backing and begun to target young Kurds. Bilal Vural was on his
way home from work with two firends when he was attacked as he passed the
Seyrantepe office of the Ulkuculer Ocagi which is linked to the MHP.
The incident took place at around 6 p.m on 3 May when two fascists
started an argument with the three men as they passed the building. Afther
a short argument the two fascists opened fire, wounding Bilal Vural and
Hakim Atik. They were taken to hospital where Bilal Vural died. Hakim Atik
a HADEP member, was taken to the Etfal hospital, where his condition is
said to be serious.
The two assailants fled the scene of the crime, but were later reported
to have been detained with the weapons.
Vural's relatives said at the hospital that state attacks on Alevis
and Kurds had increased adding: 'The authorities are letting those the
gangs on us'.
Protest against attacks increases also
The murder of two young Kurds on successive days has been protested
by students in Istanbul, Ankara and Dersim. The protests were attacked
by fascists in Istanbul and Ankara and by police in Dersim.
Around thousand five hundred students held a protest march in Istanbul
to protest at the murder of Kenan Mak. The students marched to Beyazit
Square, shouting slogans such as,'MHP murders', and 'close down the 'Idealist
Clubs'. As the students returned to their faculty they were attacked by
a gang of 30 fascists armed with knive and meat cleavers.
Cem Bayrak was stabbed and a hospital employee, Erdin? Selvin suffured
a head wound as he tried to prevent the gang stoning students who had taken
refuge in the Esnof hospital. Fascists also attacked students at a hostel
in Matka district, injuring two students, Firat Kiziler and Vedat Kocakaya.
Around five hundred students held a protest in Ankara's Kizilay square
and 300 students marched to the Cebeci campus of the political science
faculty with a banner inscribed with the words: "We do not want fascist
gangs in the university'.
Students, who took shelter in univeristy buildings while the police
did not act to prevent the fascists entering the campus, where they opened
fire. After along period of tension the progressive students marched out
of the campus as far as MithatpaŘa bridge, surrounded by police. Students
in Dersim also held a protest against fascist attacks on Kurds. The students
were attacked by police as they dispersed, Ali Ulus, Sukran and Gekhan
Yilmaz were detained.
More protests at attacks on Kurds
Protests have been organised by students in Diyarbakir, Urfa, Mersin,
Istanbul and Ankara after the murder of two young Kurds. The students warned
they would not stay silent in the face of fascist attacks.
In Diyarbakir's Dicle University a protest march was held in front
of the faculty of law, after which the police detained 30 students on the
road to Diyarbakir and in the city centre. Students held a protest outside
Marmara universtiy in Istanbul, holding placards saying 'The MHP is Nazi.
No platform for Nazis'.
Students also held protests at three universities in Ankara.
500 students held a protest in Mersin in front of the Faculty of
Literature and Science, while at Harran University in Urfa students held
a meeting in memory of Kenan Mak, who was murdered by fascist in Bolu.
SIX HADEP MEMBERS SENTENCED
A state security court in Ankara, on May 6, sentenced six HADEP members
to three years and nine months in jail each. The defendants from HADEP's
provincial headquarters in the northwestern Turkish province of Bolu were
accused of helping the PKK and facilitating their acts.
The court based its decision on illicit documents promoting the PKK
which were seized during a police raid of the HADEP offices in autumn last
year. The documents included a calender with photographs of PKK fighters
killed in clashes with Turkish soldiers and a sticker of MED-TV, a Kurdish
television station based in Europe, Anadolu said.
The defendants rejected the charges, saying that the seized documents
had arrived by mail, and that they watched only cultural and music programs
GREY WOLVES RESTARTED
KILLING AND WOUNDING
Ultra nationalist MHP's militants, Grey Wolves, after a period of
"wait and see" folloing their leader Türkes' death, have recently
restarted their bloody actions in Turkey.
HADEP announced on May 6 that Turkey's ultra-nationalist "Grey Wolf"
militants had shot dead one of its members, amid a spate of political street
Reuters reported the news as follows:
"A group of nationalists killed Bilal Vural and heavily injured another
of our members late on Monday," an official of the Istanbul branch of the
People's Democracy Party (HADEP) told Reuters.
Vural was shot with a pump-action shotgun in an outlying district
of Istanbul, the party official said.
Police said they were treating the matter as a common crime. "This
incident does not have any political dimension. Two people have been arrested
and charged with a criminal killing," said a police officer investigating
Violence involving the far-right and far-left has increased in recent
days. The Grey Wolves, named after a legendary she wolf from Turkic Central
Asia, have been accused by the left of killing a university student in
the town of Bolu last weekend.
Around 600 students protested at Istanbul University on Tuesday at
Leftist militants last week clashed with riot police at a May Day
rally in which more than 200 people were arrested. Rightists badly beat
one of the leftists near the rally.
Television pictures showing Grey Wolves hanging the leftist from
a building while police and rightists beat him was shown widely on Turkish
and international television.
More than 5,000 people died in street clashes between leftist groups
and Grey Wolves in the late 1970s. The fighting prompted a military coup
WHAT KIND OF A SINGING
BIRD IS SEMDIN?
Ilnur Cevik (Turkish Daily News, May 9, 1998)
Prime Minister Mesut Yilmaz is telling the press that PKK terrorist
leader Semdin Sakik, who was abducted by Turkish crack troops from northern
Iraq and brought to Turkey, has retracted his testimony that the terrorist
organization had killed Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme.
Sakik has earned himself the nickname of a "singing bird" after making
so many accusations and defaming so many people through his slanders. Many
journalists, politicians and human rights activists have been the target
of Semdin's slanders and yet now the prime minister is telling us that
at least on one account Semdin did not tell the truth.
If this is the case the revelations of Semdin are highly questionable
and this is of course a serious problem for those who blew up these revelations
out of proportion and ruined the reputation of so many people.
At the time we had warned everyone concerned that Semdin was a notorious
terrorist leader whose testimony should not be taken seriously. We wanted
to see what he had to say in court where everything is public.
Yet, this was not the case. So some people will be able to use this
against our authorities. They may say "may be Semdin never said anything
and officials put everything into his mount."
Semdin's capture by our forces was an achievement and a serious blow
to the PKK terrorist organization. To overplay this and try to exploit
the situation by spreading sensation should not have been the way to proceed
in this case. We feel the mass circulation newspapers who cannot provide
serious news to their readers just jumped on the story to create a sensation
and made a mess of everything.
As matter of fact no body abroad took Semdin's disclosures seriously.
The prime minister revealed that the Swedish government did not even bother
to respond to Turkey when Turkish authorities wanted to call its attention
to Semdin's allegations.
If we want to be taken seriously we should be extremely careful not
to harm our truths with exaggeration and sensation. In the end everything
may become a national embarrassment.
Semdin Sakik is bound to make some very important disclosures especially
on the PKK's relations with foreign governments and the outside supports
it gets. He should reveal how PKK operates abroad, how its secures its
finances. However, by using him to defame a couple of people in Turkey
we are actually denying ourselves the real dividends.
MOTHERS ATTACKED ON THE EVE OF MOTHERS' DAY
Saturday Mothers (Mother's of the Disappeared) were attacked by police
during their 155th-week sit-down protest in Galatasaray, in Istanbul on
9 May 1998.
"The Mother's of the Disappeared" who have been protesting against
disappearances under police custody and demanding information about their
relatives, were told last Saturday that there will be no 156th-week to
Pervin Buldan, member of Saturday Mothers Organising Committee and
wife of Savas Buldan, a Kurdish businessman who was abducted and a few
days later found dead, said that the protest of the mothers will continue
and that they urge women all over the world to give them their maximum
Nimet Tanrikulu, member of the executive committee of the Human Rights
Association, Tomris Ozden, Birgul Kutan, Hanim Tosun, Ali Ocak, Fatma Morsumbul,
Emine Duman, Aynur Kocak, Kiymet Tosun and Kiymet Cengiz were taken into
custody during the police attack last Saturday
ULKEDE GUNDEM CLOSED
DOWN FOR 10 DAYS
Pro-Kurdish daily Ulkede Gundem was closed down on 10 May 1998 for
ten days by order of Istanbul State Security Court. According to journalists
working at the newspaper the court order was served on late on 9 May demanding
that the newspaper cease publication for 10 days.
The reason given for the closure, according to the court order, is
an article written by Hatip Dicle, an ex-DEP MP who is currently serving
a 15 years sentence in Ankara Prison. His article was found to be in violation
of Article 312 of Turkish Penal Code.
Newspaper officials claimed that further closure orders will follow
and subsequently the Turkish authorities will ban the newspaper.
The Turkish authorities had closed down four (4) pro-Kurdish daily
newspapers in the past five years.
TURKEY OVER DAMS ON TIGRIS, EUPHRATES
Reuters, May 11, 1998
Iraq accused Turkey on Monday of threatening the flow of the Euphrates
and Tigris rivers by building dams in violation of the rights of countries
"Turkey is violating international law by building several dams on
the two rivers without taking into account rights of countries which are
sharing these rivers," an Iraqi foreign ministry spokesman said in a statement
carried by the official Iraqi News Agency INA.
The Tigris originates in Turkey before flowing into Iraq. The Euphrates
starts in Turkey and winds through Syria before entering Iraq.
Syria and Iraq say the flow from Turkey is not enough and both countries
depend on the river waters for drinking, irrigation and electricity generation.
In 1996 Turkey announced a plan for its fourth dam on the Euphrates,
to produce power and irrigate a large chunk of southeastern Turkey.
Syria, Iraq and Turkey have held several meetings in the past but
failed to reach an agreement on water-sharing.
The Ankara and Damascus governments signed a provisional agreement
in 1987 under which Turkey allows the flow of 500 cubic metres per second
to Syria. The Syrian government has called for a permanent agreement.
The Baghdad and Ankara governments are also at loggerheads over Turkey's
policy of allowing U.S. and British jet fighters to use a Turkish base
to launch surveillance missions in northern Iraq to protect Kurds from
possible attacks by Baghdad.
"We hope that Turkey would review such policy (against Iraq) and
take into consideration bilateral interest," the Iraqi spokesman said.
STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ARMED ASSAULT AGAINST BIRDAL
On 12 May 1998, at about 12:25, our President Mr. Akin Birdal was
severely wounded because of an armed assault by two unknown assailants,
at his office at the Human Rights Association's Headquarters. The intelligence
police officers, who normally are present every day in front of our association's
building to observe people coming and going , were absent on that day.
Also it is quite obvious that the perpetrators were feeling very safe,
given the fact that they left the place of the crime armed.
It is also quite alarming that the security officers, who were informed
about the assault, arrived at the place of the crime and started with a
"technical" examination, instead of speeding up the process of getting
our severely wounded President, lying on the floor, to the hospital. The
ambulance, which was called immediately after the incident, was very late
in arriving which caused our President loosing much blood.
After our President was hospitalized, the necessary steps to save
and document any evidence was not carried out at the office of the President.
The room was not sealed for investigation, and whatever evidence present
was not investigated carefully. It was not until the next day that the
police, upon the urging of our officers, investigated the bullets holes.
Computerized pictures of perpetrators were drawn. But their clothes
are not in accordance with the eye-witnesses testimony.
We have grave concerns for Mr. Birdal's safety at the hospital because
entrance to the hospital is not under the strict security measures as we
have heard from various sources.
The police officers, who guard the entrance to the intensive care
unit at the hospital where our President is being hospitalized, are attached
to the Anti Terrorism Branch of Ankara Security Department and are easily
identified through their moustache which indicates their association to
a certain political group. They also behave towards our association's officers
and members in a disturbing way. Our members who are on duty at the hospital
are not allowed to secure the elevator exit to the intensive care unit.
Therefore our own security can only be carried out partially.
The investigation is being carried out by the Anti Terrorism Branch
and we have first indications that it is being distorted. At the Security
Department, the eye-witnesses were shown pictures of several HRA officers
and also HADEP officers known to us. This leads us to believe that the
investigation is intended to conceal the identity of the perpetrators.
According to human rights defenders, this assault was an obvious
contra- guerilla action, as in previous unresolved assaults. We are concerned
that the perpetrators of this assault will not be revealed and those accountable
will be protected. If this is the case, then we will hold not only the
Interior Ministry, but also the government and all mechanisms embodying
the government accountable for this.
As Human Rights Association's officers and human rights activists,
we declare that, in order to investigate this assault objectively and with
the necessary care, an independent commission has to be set up in which
our association's officers would be part of. We also declare that the Human
Rights Association will continue with its determined struggle for human
rights, democracy, freedom and peace.
IRRESPONSIBILITY OF AUTHORITIES LEADS TO ARMED ATTACK ON IHD PRESIDENT
Amnesty Internation press release of May 12, 1998:
By persistently attempting to discredit the Turkish Human Rights
Association (HRA), the Turkish authorities created the climate for today's
shooting of Akin Birdal, President of the HRA, Amnesty International said
"The Turkish authorities have consistently failed to investigate
or condemn earlier fatal attacks on officials of the Association," the
"In fact, successive Turkish governments have remained mute when
such attacks took place, while the Foreign Ministry endeavoured to take
every opportunity to undermine the HRA -- and Akin Birdal in particular.
It appears that this may have been official policy."
Two unidentified assailants burst into the offices of the Association
in Akara this morning and opened fire on Mr Birdal. He suffered six bullet
wounds and is in a critical condition in hospital.
It appears that this unprovoked attack is the result of the Turkish
authorities'irresponsible handling of alleged confessions by Semdin Sakik,
a former military commander of the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) who recently
defected to the Kurdish Democratic Party/Iraq (KDP/Iraq) of Masoud Barzani,
and was subsequently abducted by the Turkish security forces in Northern
Iraq and brought back across the border. The Turkish press then published
confessions alleged to have been made by Semdin Sakik, in which numerous
prominent personalities critical of the government were implicated as having
actively supported the PKK. Akin Birdal was one of the targets of such
More than 10 officials of the HRA have been killed since 1991. In
most cases, the assailants were unidentified, although the attacks took
place at the same time as intense police harassment, coinciding with a
succession of prosecutions of the organization for its legitimate activities.
Muhsin Melik, founder of the Sanliurfa branch of the HRA, was able to identify
his attackers as police officers before he died of his wounds on 2 June
"It appears that such murders of HRA members were not properly investigated,
and in no cases was the HRA satisfied that the true perpetrators had been
arrested -- indeed, it appeared that perpetrators were being protected,"
Amnesty International said.
The text of what was apparently a secret Interior Ministry circular
in January 1997 referred to human rights groups as being used by the PKK,
and recommended that local Governors, Gendarmerie General Command and Police
Headquarters should "take measuresto eliminate the impression of credibility"
of people who "incite the public". The uncorroborated allegations attributed
to Semdin Sakik were given enormous publicity -- in direct breach of the
normal practice of public prosecutors who have the right to keep preliminary
The bitter conflict between government forces and the PKK in southeast
Turkey has claimed more than 28,000 lives since 1984. In this highly-charged
context, government silence in the face of such gross allegations was irresponsible
and has given licence to the attackers.
"It is time that the Turkish Government, at its highest levels, condemns
such attacks. It should publicly acknowledge the important contribution
made by the HRA and other human rights organizations, and ensure that the
perpetrators of this attack are apprehended and brought to justice," Amnesty
In February this year an Amnesty International delegate observed
a hearing at Ankara State Security Court in one of the many prosecutions
faced by Ak_n Birdal for exercising his right to freedom of expression.
BACKGROUND ON HRA
The HRA is an independent organization founded in 1986 by a group
of lawyers, publishers, artists and human rights activists to monitor abuses
and to protect human rights. Since its foundation the HRA has outspokenly
condemned violations of human rights committed by government agencies and
armed opposition groups. The HRA's centre is in Ankara, but it now has
59 branches throughout the country and some 20,000 members. A sister organization,
the Turkish Human Rights Foundation, runs treatment centres for torture
survivors in Ankara, Izmir, Istanbul and Adana and a documentation centre
From the start the HRA has faced considerable pressure from the authorities.
Many HRA members, however, have paid for their courageous defence of human
rights with imprisonment and torture, and some even with their lives. No
less than 10 HRA members have been killed in the past five years. Members
of the Human Rights Association have received death threats by letter and
There are two principal reasons for the intense pressure on the HRA.
First, the state does not welcome the scrutiny of human rights activists
who have helped to document and limit the systematic violation of human
rights by interviewing victims, by acting as observers during confrontations
between the civilian population and the security forces, by assisting foreign
delegations, and by making representations to police, prosecutors and governors.
These activities have earned the HRA bitter enemies in the ranks of the
government and the security forces.
Second, in the highly charged atmosphere engendered by political
violence, opposition to the torture or extrajudicial execution of suspected
members of armed groups is often perceived by the authorities as support
for those groups. Several HRA officials have been prosecuted for assisting
armed organizations, when the real motive for prosecution was apparently
the defendant's work against human rights violations.
The HRA has organized campaigns on a variety of issues, including
an action on pedestrians' rights, activities on women's concerns, the death
penalty, workers' rights, and refugee rights. It has published many reports
on general and specific human rights questions, and produces a bi-monthly
The local branches have a heavy daily workload, monitoring human
rights in their own provinces and, where appropriate, taking action. The
branches receive many appeals from families or political publications and
organizations whose members have been detained by the police, have "disappeared",
allege to have been tortured or have been extrajudicially executed.
The aims of the Human Rights Association are described in the second
article of its constitution:
1. To research and identify practices concerning human rights in
our country, and to inform individual persons, the general public and relevant
authorities of those practices.
2. To commission or carry out scientific research concerning human
rights, to monitor developments in this area and to inform public opinion.
3. To hold open conventions, conferences, seminars, panel discussions,
symposiums, all manner of meetings and demonstrations relevant to the aims
of the association, to hold exhibitions and competitions, to publish, award
prizes and to establish foundations.
4. To carry out research and to inform public opinion in order that
convicted prisoners, remand prisoners, and those in police detention, without
discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political views
or beliefs, should be able to continue their lives in a humane manner.
5. To co-operate with organizations with the same aim.
PROTESTS AT THE ATTACK
ON AKIN BIRDAL
Crowds in Ankara, Mersin, Izmir, Adana, Antalya and Kocaeli shouted
that they would not abandon the struggle for peace and democracy. 3.000
people attended a rally in Ankara organised by the Democracy Platform on
After speeches had been made the people marched silently to the sevgi
hospital where Akin Birdal was receiving treatment. IHD vice-president
Osman Baydemir told the people that Akin Birdal had sent them a message
via his daughter Evren, saying that he was well and had relayed his best
wishes. Baydemir said that they would continue their protests the next
day with a protest at the interior ministry, from where they would march
to the Turkish parliament.
Meanwhile, two protesters who had been at the hospital ever since
Akin Birdal was shot, Server Yildirim and Melih Altinok were detained by
police. 3.000 people also attended a protest in Mersin and 6.000 people
gathered in Konak square in Izmir.
Around 1.000 people attended a rally in Antalya, where the crowd
marched to the main Post Office. There they faxed protest messages to the
president and the leader of the parliament. Around a thousand people attended
a rally in Adana and protests also took place in many other places.
SUR L'ATTENTAT CONTRE AKIN
CILDEKT, 13 mai 1998
M. Akin Birdal, président de l'Association turque des droits
de l'Homme (IHD) depuis 1992 et vice-président de la Fédération
Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'homme (FIDH) a été
grièvement blessé mardi 12 mai dans un attentat perpétré
dans son bureau par deux personnes non identifiées. Les agresseurs
ont tiré treize fois sur M. Birdal qui a été gravement
touché à la poitrine et aux jambes. Les assaillants ont pu
prendre la fuite à pied.
Selon la chaîne d'information en continu NTV, une organisation
d'extrême-droite illégale, la "Brigade turque de la Vengeance"
(TIT) - qui a fait parler d'elle au début des années 1990,
notamment en assassinant plusieurs journalistes et personnalités
kurdes- aurait revendiqué l'attentat. L'information n'a cependant
pas été confirmée par des sources officielles.
Selon Husnu Ondul, l'avocat de M. Birdal, ce dernier a récemment
"reçu des menaces anonymes ( ) L'État turc ne lui a jamais
donné la protection policière demandée par l'association".
Le ministre de l'Intérieur, Murat Basesgioglu, a nié pour
sa part ces propos.
Agronome engagé de longue date dans le combat pacifique pour
la démocratie, M. Birdal, 50 ans, avait purgé une peine de
prison d'un an après le coup d'État militaire de septembre
1980. En 1997, il avait été condamné à un an
de prison par la justice pour des propos "séparatistes" et "incitation
à la haine raciale" .
Son cas est actuellement devant la Cour de cassation après
un pourvoi introduit par ses avocats. Il fait aussi l'objet d'une vingtaine
de procès pour "propagande séparatiste". Accusé à
maintes reprises par plusieurs quotidiens et certains dirigeants turcs
"d'agir en faveur du PKK", son nom avait été récemment
mentionné parmi les personnes qui avaient apporté leur soutien
au PKK dans les "aveux" de Semdin Sakik, ancien commandant du PKK en Turquie,
arrêté à la mi-avril dans le nord de l'Irak lors d'une
opération de l'armée turque. M. Birdal avait cependant rejeté
en bloc "ces accusations destinées à discréditer puis
à éliminer les troubles-fête".
Le fait de discréditer des opposants par des campagnes de
presse orchestrées par la police politique (MIT), de les désigner
à la vindicte populaire comme des "traîtres" ou des "terroristes"
avant de les faire assassiner par des escadrons de la mort est une pratique
désormais classique du régime turc. Depuis 1992, plus de
4500 démocrates kurdes et turcs ont été assassinés
par des escadrons de la mort.
Un rapport rendu public en janvier dernier, de l'inspecteur en chef
des services du Premier ministre a établi que ces escadrons associant
des éléments de la police, de la gendarmerie et de la mafia
avaient agi au vu et au su des plus hautes autorités de l'État
et sur instruction du Bureau de la Guerre Spéciale. Le nouveau Premier
ministre, M. Yilmaz, avait promis de "châtier les coupables et de
purger les services de sécurité de ces gangs criminels".
Promesse restée sans lendemain car ces gangs émanent
du noyau dur de l'État, ce que les Turcs appellent "l'État
profond", équivalent turc du Gladio italien. Les gouvernements civils
sont toujours restés impuissants face à ces réseaux
de pouvoir puissants protégés par l'état-major des
armées. Après chaque attentat spectaculaire ils condamnent
"fermement les auteurs" et promettent de "les arrêter rapidement".
Mais à ce jour aucun des auteurs de plus de 4500 "meurtres politiques
non élucidés" n'a été arrêté.
C'est dans ce contexte qu'il convient de situer la déclaration
du Premier ministre turc: "Je condamne fermement cette agression et souhaite
que les agresseurs soient retrouvés dans les plus brefs délais
pour être traduits devant la justice".
En Europe, l'émotion a été à la mesure
de la notoriété d'A. Birdal et du respect qu'inspire son
action. M. Klaus Kinkel, chef de la diplomatie allemande, a été
le premier à réagir en "déplorant profondément"
l'attentat et en espérant que l'affaire soit "rapidement éclaircie".
Il a précisé qu'il connaissait ce défenseur courageux
des droits de l'homme pour l'avoir rencontré plusieurs fois, la
dernière à Ankara, en mars 1997.
La présidence de l'Union européenne, dans un communiqué
de presse rendu public à Londres, indique: "Nous avons appris avec
stupeur et consternation le lâche attentat contre Akin Birdal". L'UE
"condamne cet attentat" et "soutient fortement les déclarations
des autorités turques selon lesquelles tous les efforts seront faits
pour transmettre ses responsables à la justice".
À Paris, une porte-parole du ministre des Affaires étrangères
a exprimé "l'émotion de la France" et rendu hommage " au
combat mené sans relâche par M. Birdal en faveur des droits
de l'homme". "Nous voulons croire que cet événement renforcera
en Turquie la détermination de tous ceux qui, y compris au sein
du gouvernement partagent cet objectif et ce battent pour la démocratisation"
L'Italie est "indignée" et "déplore" l'attentat perpétré
contre M. Birdal a déclaré le ministère des affaires
étrangères qui a souligné que pour Rome "l'adoption
par le gouvernement d'Ankara de normes européennes en matière
des droits de l'homme constitue la condition indispensable pour un rapprochement
progressif de ce pays vers l'Europe".
De son côté la Grèce a stigmatisé "les
mécanismes autoritaires qui terrorisent les citoyens désireux
de dire librement leurs opinions en Turquie, qui reste une démocratie
grise prisonnière de ces mécanismes". "Cet attentat n'est
pas seulement un coup porté contre M. Birdal mais aussi contre la
démocratie et les droits de l'homme qui sont en fait vides de contenu
en Turquie" a conclu le porte-parole grec.
À Paris, dans une lettre ouverte adressée au président
turc, Suleyman Demirel, Mme Mitterrand, présidente de la Fondation
France-Libertés et du CILDEKT, a exprimé son "indignation"
face "à cet attentat atroce qui participe à la vague de persécutions,
de menaces et d'assassinats des défenseurs des droits de l'homme"
et a ajouté: "nous nous interrogeons sur la capacité de votre
gouvernement de rétablir un État de droit en Turquie".
A Londres, Amnesty a accusé les autorités turques d'avoir
"créé le climat" propice à l'attentat. "Les autorités
turques ont tenté avec persistance de discréditer l'Association
turque des droits de l'homme (IHD) et n'ont ni mené d'enquête
ni condamné les précédentes attaques contre ses représentants"
indique le communiqué d'Amnesty qui ajoute: "Plus de 10 membres
de l'IHD ont été assassinés depuis 1991( ) Il apparaît
que ces meurtres n'ont pas fait l'objet d'enquêtes correctes, et
même que leurs auteurs ont été protégées".
Cette opinion est également partagé par de larges secteurs
de l'opinion turque. Ainsi, pour Recai Kutan, président du groupe
parlementaire du parti islamiste, la Vertu, "il est impossible de parler
de la démocratie et des droits de l'homme dans un climat où
le président de l'Association des droits de l'homme est accusé
sans aucun fondement légal et ouvertement désigné
comme cible pour des tueurs". Cet argument a été repris par
Aydin Erdogan, avocat à l'IHD: "Birdal a été désigné
comme une cible ces derniers jours. C'était une invitation au meurtre".
PREPARES FOR NEW INVASION OF SOUTH KURDISTAN
Med-TV, May 14, 1998
On the first anniversay of Turkey`s 1997 invasion of South Kurdistan,
on the 14th May the south Kurdistan administation of the PKK has issued
a statement calling on the people to mobilise against another invasion,
which Turkey is preparing for.
The statement by the PKK emphasised that the 1997 invasion of south
kurdistan by Turkey had not only aimed to annihilate the National liberation
struggle led by the PKK, but also everything kurdish and everything concerning
The statement stressed that the USA, Israel and Turkey, that wish
to take control of the Musul-Kerkuk oil field, and the oilfields of the
Caucasus, had launched the 14 may invasion in order to liguidate the PKK,
which is an obstacle to their colonialist plans.
The statement continued to detail the aims of last years invasion
as being to establish the new world order in the middle east, to destroy
the gains made in south Kurdistan and to impose treachery on the people
The statement recalled that in order to strike fear into the hearts
of the people and the patriotic democratic forces, a massacre of unarmed,
wounded and sick PKK members had been carried out in Hewler and added:
"Colonialism perpetrated a massacre but the great heroism and unrivalled
resistance shown on the revalutionary front defeated all the plans of the
The statement drew attention to the fact that the USA, Israel and
Turkey, which had been unable to achieve their aims in 1997, would in 1998
want to realise their plans with the collaboration of the KDP. It was pointed
out that Turkey was gradually moving its forces southwards and intended
to declare a turcoman Republic. It was emphasised that regional and national
forces must unite their forces and oppose this dangerous plan.
In the party statement headed "Our patriotic people" a call for mobilisation
was made. "It is a historic obligation to unite in a spirit of national
unity, and to become ever more involved in the struggle against the insidious,
brutal attacks of our enemies."
The statement emphasised that the occupation of 1998 would be more
comprehensive than that of 97 and pointed out that attacks would not only
target the PKK adding: "We call on all patriotic democratic forces to be
prepared for the attacks of the enemy and to realise military-political
alliances and to turn patriotic resistance in to uprisings"
HEARS SERAFETTIN ELCI CASE ON CHARGES OF SEPARATISM
State Security Court (DGM) in Ankara on May 14 began hearing the
case against the chairman of the pro-Kurdish Democratic Mass Party (DKP),
Serafettin Elci, on charges of separatism, the Anadolu news agency reported.
The indictment accuses Elci of violating the integrity of the Turkish
state by describing the Kurdish people as a "separate nation which Turkey
wants to assimilate" in a press conference in Brussels in 1993.
The DKP chairman on Wednesday denied the charges, saying there was
a serious Kurdish problem in Turkey.
"I favour the solution of the Kurdish problem within the integrity
of the Turkish Republic. Therefore, it is unjust to blame me for separatism,"
Elci was quoted by Anadolu as saying.
The judge postponed the case for further evaluation by the prosecutor.
If found guilty, Elci could face a prison term of between one and three
Elci, 60, who held a ministerial post in at the end of the 1970s,
played an active role in the establishment of the DKP in 1997, eventually
becoming chairman of the party.
The DKP chairman had at the time explained the party's aim to be
that of solving the Kurdish problem through dialogue. "No one should be
afraid that we are a movement which aims to divide Turkey. We respect Turkey's
borders," Elci had said.
HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT WILL COVER HEADSCARF BAN IN TURKEY
Turkish Daily News, May 14, 1998
The ban on the wearing of headscarves in public institutions in Turkey
will apparently make its way into the new human rights report that the
U.S. State Department is preparing.
When asked his opinion by a Turkish journalist, a senior State Department
official talking on background said, "It will certainly be an issue reported
in our human rights report, in the religious section."
The official also added that "this is a problem in some other countries
as well, in terms of a limitation on an ability of people to be able to
exercise their religious beliefs. So it will be reported just as it occurs,
and it would be reported in any number of countries."
The same official added that new U.S. legislation proposed by Rep.
Frank Wolf (R) of Virginia and Sen. Arlen Specter (R) of Pennsylvania and
intended to protect religious freedom around the world could actually be
The law would automatically impose sanctions on countries found to
be violating specific religious freedoms. The laws would take effect without
prior consultations with either the secretary of state or the national
The senior official said the same law may give rise to "a hierarchy
of human rights, whereby particular kinds of human rights -- that is, persecution
as defined in the legislation -- would be given enhanced treatment over,
say, torture, genocide or extra-judicial executions or denials of free
speech or other basic human rights denials..."
PARLEMENT EUROPEEN CONDAMNE L'ATTENTAT CONTRE AKIN BIRDAL
Le Parlement européen a adopté le jeudi 14 mai 1998,
une résolution condamnant "avec la dernière rigueur" l'attentat
commis contre Akin Birdal, président de l'Association turque des
droits de l'homme (IHD).
Pour les euro-députés Akin Birdal, est "un militant
hautement respecté" ayant "régulièrement informé
des délégations européennes, des ambassadeurs et plusieurs
membres du Parlement" et ayant fait l'objet de "fortes pressions" de la
part des autorités turques, dont "plusieurs procédures judiciaires",
"engagées contre lui pour ses activités en faveur des droits
de l'homme" alors "que l'on n'a pas fait grand-chose pour traduire en justice
les auteurs d'attentats commis contre d'autres membres de l'Association".
Le Parlement européen a fait part de sa "très vive
émotion et de l'indignation que lui inspire l'attentat commis contre
Akin Birdal" et s'inquiète "de ce qu'un tel attentat ait été
le résultat du climat crée par l'impunité dont jouissent
actuellement les personnes responsables d'attentats commis contre d'autres
membres d'organisations de défense des droits de l'homme et contre
des journalistes" . Il "invite les autorités turques à faire
en sorte que les auteurs et les commanditaires de ce crime, et d'autres
crimes de même nature, soient traduits en justice"( ) et demande
aux autorités turques "de faire en sorte que l'IHD et les autres
ONG uvrant dans le domaine des droits de l'homme puissent exercer librement
leurs activités de défense et de promotion des droits de
D'autre part, toujours dans la même résolution, le Parlement
européen exprime "la préoccupation" que lui inspirent la
sentence prononcée contre M. Erdogan, maire d'Istanbul, condamné
le 21 avril 1998 par la Cour de Sûreté de l'Etat de Diyarbakir,
à dix mois d'emprisonnement pour cause "d'incitation à la
haine" lors d'une allocution politique "prétendument antilaïque".
Considérant que "des procès ont été faits
à d'autres membres du parti, y compris des maires et des hommes
d'affaires" et rappelant à la Turquie "les engagements qu'elle a
contractés dans le cadre de la déclaration universelle des
droits de l'homme et des conventions internationales et régionales
en matière de droits de l'homme qu'elle a ratifiées"( )
le Parlement européen "invite le gouvernement et les partis
politiques de Turquie à mettre en uvre la législation nécessaire
pour une démocratisation fondée sur la liberté de
parole et la liberté d'opinion".
ASSOCIATION'S REPLY TO MESUT YILMAZ
IHD Executive Board's press release of May 15, 1998
Human Rights Association (HRA)'s Headquarters has decided to give
a statement to the public in response to the statements of Prime Minister
Mesut Yìlmaz which was published in the press today.
Prime Minister Mesut Yìlmaz has called the armed assault against
our President, Akìn Birdal as an "internal conflict". The national
and international public is quite surprised about Mr. Yìlmaz's interpretation.
With his undecisiveness and trepidation up to date has been unable to bring
out in the open the gang activity enmeshed in the state, and also having
caused this matter to have dropped from the agenda, he now introduces this
as an "internal conflinct" of the HRA which struggles for each individual's
right to lead a dignified life.We call upon Mr. Yìlmaz and all government
officials to act according to the responsibilities inherent to the office
The real conflict is between those who work for peace, democracy
and freedom in Turkey and those who wish to maintain the system of suppression
Our President Mr. Akìn Birdal and HRA have been chosen as
a target because of the HRA's unwavering stand and determination on the
side of peace, democracy and freedom. This is known worldwide. Therefore,
the Prime Minister's attempts to manipulate and disort the incident will
be in vain.
From the Prime Minister's statements and attitude we are led to believe
that those accountable will not be revealed. In addition, the Prime Minister,
with this statement, continues to present the HRA as target again.
The armed assault against Mr.Akìn Birdal was premeditated
and carried out professionally. Mr. Mesut Yìlmaz should immediately
explain to the public "what he is afraid of". (he stated ' it is not what
I am afraid of' )
Mesut Yìlmaz and his government will not be released of their
accountibility for this incident by declaring this an "internal conflict".
The HRA believes that the source of this armed assault is what the
Prime Minister "is afraid of".
Mesut Yìlmaz and his government will not be released of their
accountibility for this incident by declaring this an "internal conflict".
The HRA believes that the source of this armed assault is what the
Prime Minister "is afraid of"
What Mr. Yìlmaz is afraid of and unable to declare is that
the armed assault was carried out by contra-guerilla.
Mr. Mesut Yìlmaz, who earlier promised on his honour to bring
in the open the "Susurluk Case" before the people of Turkey, should bring
out in the open this incident, otherwise he should resign.
SHOOTING OF HUMAN RIGHTS LEADER
Reuters, May 17, 1998
Thousands of Turks marched on Sunday under the watchful gaze of riot
police to protest over the shooting last week of the country's leading
human rights campaigner.
In Ankara, squads of police wearing plastic body armour waited along
the route of over a thousand marchers toward the small hospital where Akin
Birdal, head of the Human Rights Association (IHD) is receiving treatment.
Birdal was shot six times in the chest and leg by two gunmen in his
Ankara office on Tuesday.
"Akin's improvement is continuing. All we have to do now is wait,"
IHD official Tayfun Gorgun told the crowd which broke up after flowers
had been laid outside the hospital.
The marchers' progress through the city had been punctuated with
chants of anti-fascist slogans and shouts of, "Don't be silent. If you
are silent, your turn will come."
Over a thousand demonstrators gathered in front of the IHD's headquarters
in central Istanbul before dispersing. Several hundred police and water
cannon were stationed in a nearby square.
In Diyarbakir, regional capital of the mainly Kurdish southeast,
police broke up a similar demonstration organised by Turkey's largest Kurdish
party, making around ten arrests.
Justice Minister Oltan Sungurlu said the search for Birdal's attackers
would end shortly.
"Those who carried out the armed attack on IHD chairman Birdal will
be caught soon," Anatolian news agency quoted him as saying.
The agency also said the main opposition Islamist Virtue Party had
submitted a motion to parliament calling for the assembly to set up an
investigation into the case.
Birdal has been an outspoken critic of Turkey's shaky human rights
record and frequently accused the state of conducting a "dirty war" against
Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) rebels in the southeast. More than 28,000
people have been killed in the 13-year conflict.
The veteran activist had been receiving death threats after purported
accusations by captured PKK defector Semdin Sakik were leaked to the press
linking Birdal to the guerrilla group.
Rights groups blamed the shooting on these reports and linked the
assassination attempt to a security scandal which exposed state ties to
rightist death squads. IHD officials deny any connection to the PKK.
Turkey's human rights record has often come under fire from the West
and was one of the factors cited by the European Union for excluding the
country from a list of potential EU candidates last December.
AVEC MME EREN KESKIN, VICE-PRESIDENTE DE L'IHD
Tandis que le Premier ministre turc et son Ministre de l'Intérieur
tentent de faire croire qu'Akin Birdal aurait été victime
"d'un règlement de compte interne au PKK", le quotidien turc Milliyet
du 17 mai a publié une longue interview de Mme Keskin, avocate,
Victime elle-même d'une tentative d'attentat, faisant toujours
l'objet de menaces incessantes, Mme Keskin affirme avoir reçu le
jour de l'attentat contre Akin Birdal, trois coups de fil sur son téléphone
portable de la part d'individus s'adressant à elle en ces termes
: "nos condoléances pour Akin Birdal qui est mort". Selon elle ces
individus ne pourraient qu'être de la police car pour cause de sécurité
elle n'avait communiqué son numéro personnel qu'à
une poignée d'amis.
Insistant sur la responsabilité de certains cercles au sein
de l'Etat turc qu'elle accuse de tirer parti de la captivité de
Semdin Sakik auquel certains journaux turcs avaient attribué des
propos mettant en cause Akin Birdal comme responsable d'une association
liée au PKK, elle pense que l'attentat a été projeté
de longue date et que ces "révélations" dans la presse turque
avaient pour but de préparer l'opinion publique.
Réagissant aux propos du premier ministre Mesut Yilmaz et
du Ministre de l'Intérieur, selon lesquels "il s'agit d'un règlement
de compte interne" ou encore "il se peut que ce soient bien le PKK et certains
milieux qui ont perpétré cet attentat pour troubler les esprits
de nos concitoyens et les rendre méfiants vis-à-vis de notre
État", elle accuse le gouvernement de ne pas respecter ses engagements
eu égard aux conventions internationales qu'il a signées.
Elle évoque aussi le durcissement des conditions de travail de l'Association
des Droits de l'Homme dont les subventions accordées par l'Union
Européenne ont été confisquées par Mehmet Agar,
ministre de l'Intérieur de l'époque et personnage du premier
plan impliqué dans l'affaire Susurluk.
Avocate de profession, elle s'interroge sur la véracité
des "révélations" faites par l'ex-commandant du PKK, Semdin
Sakik : "Parlons tout d'abord de sa déposition. On dit qu'elle a
été démentie devant le Procureur de la République.
Nous ne savons même pas si elle est faite vraiment par lui-même,
personne n'en a la moindre idée, ni l'a vue. Le Ministre de l'Intérieur
lui-même est un juriste. Il est censé savoir que l'instruction
préparatoire est secrète. La publication de ces révélations
par la presse aurait dû être saisie. Au lendemain de l'attentat,
nous n'avons guère été surpris par leurs déclarations.
Nous pensons que le gouvernement s'est rendu à la contre-guérilla".
Elle ajoute "... C'est comme si nous faisions partie du PKK et qu'il
existait un autre groupe en son sein contre nous. Nous considérons
que ces déclarations ont été faites pour couvrir les
criminels. Le Premier Ministre avait d'abord fait part de sa crainte que
l'Etat n'y soit impliqué avant de dire qu'il s'agissait d'un règlement
de compte. Quant à Ecevit, il a prononcé presque les mêmes
mots en disant que certains milieux voulant se substituer à l'Etat
auraient pu perpétrer cet attentat. Il se peut qu'ils aient peur
également. Ou bien pour continuer à gouverner, ils n'ont
pas d'autre choix..."
Critiquant la presse turque pour son insensibilité à
la situation de l'Association qui a perdu une quinzaine de dirigeants et
de membres en l'espace de onze ans, elle souligne le changement constaté
dans l'opinion publique turque à son égard "(...) Après
la publication des "révélations", il y a eu une vague d'appels
téléphoniques menaçants. Mais après l'attentat,
le vent a tourné..."
VICE-PRESIDENT DE LA FIDH SE REND AU CHEVET DE AKIN BIRDAL
Me Patrick Baudoin, président de la Fédération
internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme, s'est rendu en Turquie
où il a pu rendre visite, le 18 mai, à Akin Birdal à
l'hôpital Sevgi d'Ankara. Dans une conférence de presse donnée
à la sortie de l'hôpital,
Me Baudoin a indiqué que la famille de la FIDH "a vécu
avec émotion et tristesse" l'attentat commis contre son vice-président
A. Birdal. "Nous sommes ici pour manifester notre soutien et notre solidarité
envers Akin Birdal et les défenseurs des droits de l'homme et rappeler
aux dirigeants du pays, leurs responsabilités. Nous ne pouvons plus
nous contenter de paroles rassurantes des autorités turque".
Le président de la F.I.D.H. a ensuite lu à la presse
le texte de la lettre ouverte adressée au président turcs
S. Demirel et au Premier Ministre M. Yilmaz. Pour la FIDH "il ne suffit
pas de condamner l'attentat visant Birdal. Les autorités turques
devraient prendre des mesures concrètes pour rechercher les auteurs
de l'attentat du 12 mai, les arrêter et les remettre dans les plus
brefs délais à la justice."
LA VISITE A MOSCOU
DU GENERAL KARADAYI
Les généraux turcs se chargent désormais eux-mêmes
des missions diplomatiques qu'ils considèrent comme les plus importantes
pour la sécurité du pays. C'est dans cet esprit que le chef
d'état major des armées turques, le général
Karadayi, a effectué à partir du 18 mai, une visite entourée
d'une large publicité à Moscou où il a rencontré
son homologue russe, le ministre de la défense ainsi que des responsables
des industries d'armement.
Selon le quotidien turc Milliyet qui lui consacre la Une de son numéro
du 20 mai, le général turc a indiqué à ses
interlocuteurs russes que la Turquie pourrait acheter des hélicoptères
russes KA-50 et KA-52, ainsi que des chars T-80 et peut-être des
avions MIG-29 et SU-27 si la Russie renonçait à vendre des
missiles S-300 à Chypre. Les responsables russes lui auraient répondu
que l'annulation de contrat de vente des S-300 n'est pas impossible. En
clair, cela dépend du marchandage turco-russe.
Au cours de sa visite, le chef d'état-major turc a également
demandé aux Russes de cesser de livrer des missiles et de la technologie
nucléaire à l'Iran et à la Syrie et de ne pas tolérer
les activités du PKK sur leur territoire. Il a avancé l'idée
de la création d'une force d'action rapide turco-russe pour intervenir
dans des troubles et crises d'intérêt commun notamment au
Caucase, idée qui aurait reçu un bon accueil chez les dirigeants
Cependant, les conflits d'intérêt important, et les
contentieux historiques entre la Turquie et la Russie rendent difficiles
le développement d'une coopération significative entre les
deux pays, à supposer que les Américains, qui ont leur mot
à dire sur la politique étrangère turque, acceptent
une telle coopération.
COOK TELLS BIRDAL:
WE WILL PURSUE YOUR CAUSE
The Turkish Daily News, May 21, 1998
"We will pursue the honorable struggle you have given in the path
for development of the human rights culture," British Foreign Secretary
Robin Cook told Human Rights Association (IHD) Chairman Akin Birdal.
Birdal told Cook, "We do not want Turkey to be known as a country
known for human rights violations, as a country where human rights activists
are shot. The attack against us has been carried out by those who want
Turkey to become distanced from the EU. They cannot deter us."
Cook visited Birdal, who was recently seriously wounded in an armed
attack, at the hospital where he is receiving medical treatment and wished
him well. A brief security crisis occurred as Cook was entering Birdal's
room together with David Logan, Britain's Ambassador to Turkey, and IHD
Secretary General Nazmi Gur. IHD officials raised objections when three
policemen wanted to enter the room. They were forced, however, to allow
the policemen to enter the room following a lengthy argument wherein the
policemen said, "We have to protect Mr. Secretary." It was learned that
one of the policemen recorded the speeches during Cook's meeting.
During the meeting, Cook said about Birdal, "We have been following
the IHD for a long time. We appreciate the sensitivity he has shown on
the human rights issue and his successful work tempo." Pointing out that
the attack against Birdal had led to adverse reactions in the European
Union (EU), Cook told Birdal that all European countries had condemned
the attack. Stressing the necessity for Turkey to establish warm relations
with the EU despite all the negative developments and the necessity of
correcting its former relations which have been unsettled for some time,
Cook said, "We will pursue the honorable struggle you have given in the
path for development of the human rights culture." Stressing that the Turkish
state officials must find the perpetrators of the attack, Cook said Turkey
was an important country for the EU.
Birdal: Attack is work of those who do not want EU
Pointing out that the attack against him had been organized by those
who wanted Turkey to be distanced from the EU process, Birdal told Cook
that he and his colleagues had been exerting efforts to make Turkey a democratic
country where social peace is secure. Expressing that the IHD had been
portrayed by certain circles as an association which is the enemy of the
state, Birdal stressed that it is an association which advocates peace
and human rights.
"Turkey should be a country which abides by the standards of the
EU, where social peace has been put into effect and where every individual
can freely express himself. The IHD is annoyed about Turkey's reputation
for human rights violations. There have been efforts to push Turkey, which
is being distanced from the EU process with every passing day, outside
of this process with the actions carried out against me."
Meanwhile, Silvie Jan, the chairwoman of the European Democratic
Women's Union, is expected to visit Birdal in the coming days.
FACE EIGHT YEARS' JAIL
A Turkish army prosecutor demanded two civilian Islamist journalists
be jailed for eight years at their military trial on May 21, state-run
Anatolian news agency said.
It said reporter Yasar Kaplan and editor Murat Balibey of the Islamist
Akit newspaper, were accused of "inciting soldiers to break the law and
disobey orders" in an article written in the daily.
Under Turkish law civilians can be tried in military courts.
Rights groups have often criticised Turkey for imprisoning journalists
for what they write. An editor can also be held legally responsible for
the contents of newspapers.
The case was adjourned.
Prosecutors have begun a wave of legal actions against prominent
Islamists since the constitutional court banned Turkey's biggest political
grouping, the Islam-based Welfare Party in January.
A Welfare-led government was toppled from power last June after sustained
pressure spearheaded by the highly secularist military.
ARREST RELIGIOUS PROTESTERS
Associated Press, May 22, 1998
Police arrested dozens of Islamic militants Friday during a protest
against a government ban on head scarves in public schools and offices.
Officers stopped about 100 people leaving a mosque after Friday prayers,
saying the protesters were not authorized to march through Konya, about
190 miles south of Ankara.
The semiofficial Anatolia news agency said 33 people were arrested,
questioned and brought before the state prosecutor.
Friday is a day reserved for prayer under Islam, and Muslims often
organize demonstrations after midday services.
Although women traditionally wear headscarves in Turkey, the powerful
pro-secular army has accused Islamist activists of turning the custom into
a political statement.
The center of Turkey, Central Anatolia, is a stronghold of the Virtue
Party, the successor of the now-banned, pro-Islamic Welfare Party led by
former Premier Necmettin Erbakan.
The Welfare Party, ousted early this year, was the first Islamic
party to come to power in Turkey since the country's founding in 1923.
It sought to raise the profile of Islam in predominantly Muslim, but secular
SIX FOR ATTACK ON AKIN BIRDAL
Reuters, May 22, 1998
Turkish police arrested six people in connection with the shooting
last week of the country's top human rights campaigner, Anatolian news
agency said on Friday.
It said a paramilitary gendarmerie sergeant was among the suspects
held for the attack on Human Rights Association head Akin Birdal, who was
The agency named two people it said were accused of shooting Birdal
six times at his office in Ankara. The attack took place following press
leaks linking Birdal to Kurdish guerrillas. His group denies any links
to the rebels.
The shooting prompted streets protests in Turkey and widespread concern
British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook visited Birdal in hospital this
week and called for the attackers to be found swiftly and brought to justice.
The arrests were made overnight in Istanbul and at a motorway toll
on the road between the city and Ankara.
Anatolian said the suspects were linked to far-right criminal gangs
blamed for a string of unsolved political killings. Police were still searching
for a man who allegedly ordered the Birdal shooting, the agency said.
TURQUIE BOUDE LE CONSEIL D'ASSOCIATION AVEC L'UNION EUROPENNE
La visite à Ankara de R. Cook n'a pas réussi à
convaincre le gouvernement turc de participer à la réunion
du conseil d'association prévue pour le 25 mai à Bruxelles.
Les conditions requises pour la tenue de cette réunion ne sont pas
Le texte sur la Turquie qui devait être débattu lors
de ce conseil prévoyait un approfondissement des relations entre
l'UE et la Turquie mais pose certaines conditions politiques. Nous ne pouvons
les (conditions) accepter" a déclaré à l'AFP, un porte-parole
"Les conditions préalables que l'on nous avance pour l'application
du texte de "stratégie européenne pour la Turquie" sont les
mêmes que celle formulées par l'Union fin avril" a-t-il ajouté
en référence à un communiqué de l'UE du 29
avril dernier appelant Ankara à des améliorations dans ses
relations avec la Grèce, dans le conflit chypriote et dans le domaine
des droits de l'homme.
Or la Turquie fait l'impasse sur les questions politiques et ne veut
discuter que de la coopération économique et financière,
en particulier du déblocage d'une aide financière de 375
millions d'écus (412,5 millions de dollars) prévue par l'accord
d'union douanière entrée en vigueur en 1996.
Chacun campant sur ses positions le dialogue turco-européen
est en panne, pour quelque temps.
TWICE BEFORE EURO COURT
Reuters, May 25, 1998
The European Court of Human Rights ruled twice against Turkey on
Monday including a condemnation of its banning in 1992 of the far left
The court ruled that Turkey had violated that part of the European
Convention of Human Rights, of which it is a signatory, which guarantees
freedom of association by banning the Socialist party which was created
in 1988 and had stood in elections.
The party was banned by Turkey's Constitutional Court on the grounds
that it distinguished between a Turkish and a Kurdish nation to the detriment
of Turkey's territorial integrity.
The court said there were no grounds to ban a group which did not
use violence even though its political arguments were irksome to authorities.
"The dissolution of the SP has been disproportionate to the aim pursued
and consequently unnecessary in a democratic society," the court said.
The court issued a similar ruling in January concerning the banning
of Turkey's United Communist Party.
The European court awarded 50,000 francs ($8,300) damages each to
SP chairman Ilhan Kirit and former chairman Dogu Perincek, far less than
the $7.5 million they sought for themselves and their party.
It also said it had no powers under the Convention to order Turkey
to rescind the ban against the party.
The court earlier ruled that Turkey should pay damages to a woman
whose son disappeared during a swoop by government forces against PKK Kurdish
The court found Turkey violated an article of the European Convention
of Human Rights, of which it is a signatory, and should pay Koceri Kurt
a total of 25,000 pounds sterling ($40,000).
The court ruled the mother's testimony about seeing her son in the
hands of security forces after clashes between soldiers and guerrillas
was credible. The incident took place near Bismil in the southeast of the
country in November 1995.
The court however failed to find conclusive proof that Uzeyir Kurt
was killed by authorities.
It ruled the mother should be compensated on the grounds that Turkey
violated article five of the Human Rights Convention stating that unacknowledged
detention of an individual is a negation of the convention's guarantees.
Separately, some 50 Kurdish men, aged between 20 and 30 and who are
in France illegally, occupied the steps of a church in the southern port
of Marseille where they said they would carry out a hunger strike until
authorities allowed them to stay in the country.
BIRDAL IDENTIFIES ASSAILANTS
Turkish Daily News, May 25, 1998
The capture of the six suspects who allegedly attacked the Human
Rights Association (IHD) chairman has stirred controversy as the attackers
on Sunday were taken to the site of the incident to reenact the assault
at the IHD building in Ankara.
Akin Birdal, who is still in the hospital, and witnesses identified
the suspects as the men who attacked him. The suspects will be questioned
further by the police in Ankara on May 25.
It was learned that the alleged hit man in the Birdal assassination
attempt, Bahri Eken -- who had been working for Serdar Saruhan -- was tried
in an Istanbul court for months for threatening a woman in an attempt to
acquire her property near Istanbul.
Tansu Aygulhan, who is the owner of a dog farm, said that she was
threatened by a gang which included Bahri Eken. Three people, including
an alleged Jitem gendarmerie intelligence unit member and a alleged member
of the National Intelligence Organization (MIT) and Eken, all threatened
her in an effort seize the property that she and her father owned.
Last week, six people were detained in connection to last week's
armed attack against IHD Chairman Birdal. Among the six are two people
whom the police believe injured Birdal. The alleged hit men, Bahri Eken
and Kerim Deretarla, and the other conspirators, Hasan Hasanoglu, Erkal
Ulas, Ahmet Fulin and Cengiz Ersever, were apprehended in a series of police
Meanwhile, opposition parties have stepped up their criticism on
the government, which they say should not be looking for the gang outside,
because it is within the government.
Deputy Chairmen of the True Path Party (DYP) Hayri Kozakcioglu and
Meral Aksener said during a press conference in Istanbul that if the government
has Mahmut Yildirim, code-named Yesil (Green), under control as its says,
then it should explain how these incidents are still happening.
Kozakcioglu also accused those who leaked the confession of Semdin
Sakik -- the outlawed Kurdistan Workers' Party's (PKK) second in command
-- concerning Birdal, saying that the confession was the reason for the
armed attack against Birdal. He added that, "leaking such confessions is
strictly forbidden by the laws and we call on the judiciary to investigate
After last week's operation, the ballistic investigation showed that
two 9-mm handguns found in the possession of the suspects were the ones
used to shoot Birdal. The authorities are still searching for another man,
Semih Tufan Guraltay, who is believed to have planned the attack.
One of the captured suspects, Ersever -- no relation to Cem Ersever,
a retired army and intelligence officer who was killed by unidentified
attackers in 1993 -- is said to be a non-commissioned military officer
employed in a gendarmerie station in Istanbul.
The authorities said he was an associate of Mahmut Yildirim, code-named
Yesil (Green), a former intelligence officer who is blamed for the killing
of a number of people in relation to the criminal actions of the alleged
IN ATTACK ON AKIN BIRDAL
Inter Press Service, May 26, 1998
The would-be assassins who gunned down Turkey Ýs top human rights
activist got their training, in secret, from a non-commissioned officer
with neo-fascist sympathies serving with a top anti-terrorist intelligence
Six men were arrested at the weekend in connection with a near-fatal
gun attack on Akin Birdal, chairman of the countryÝs Human Rights Association.
Shot seven times, Birdal was badly wounded but survived.
Two of the arrested group, Kerem Deretarla and Bahri Eken, have reportedly
confessed all to investigators and will plead guilty to charges of attempted
In a remarkable confrontation, they were both brought before BirdalÝs
hospital bed so he could confirm them as the men who gunned him down in
his office on May 12.
"I looked into their very eyes," Birdal told IPS by phone yesterday,
"but they could not do the same to me. They were the killers. But they
are only tools, mere children. The real agents are behind them."
Deretarla, just 17 years old, has told police that he was trained
for the attack in a secret woodland camp north of Istanbul. His trainer
was one Cengiz Ersever, a non-commissioned officer serving with the countryÝs
Ersever was promptly arrested and is expected to plead guilty to
Speaking to IPS from his bed in AnkaraÝs private Sevgi Hospital,
Birdal recalled the moment when the would-be killers struck.
"I knew," he said, speaking faintly and with difficulty. "I was expecting
that they would make an attempt on my life.
"They had come as visitors. But I suspected them, so I was alert
and stood up as they were leaving the room, so I could move and defend
myself." Birdal must undergo more surgery in the days to come. His left
foot and right arm are still paralysed.
According to the gunmenÝs own testimony, as widely reported here,
he was targeted after the media printed the leaked testimony of former
Kurdish guerrilla commander Semdin Sakik, who was snatched by a Turkish
special forces unit earlier this year.
In a wide ranging series of allegations attributed to Sakik - some
of which he has since denied - a long list of critics of the government
and military were "named" as "Kurdish agents" and supporters of the Kurdistan
WorkersÝ Party (PKK) guerrilla force.
According to the alleged testimony of Sakik, PKK leader Abdullah
Ocalan was supposed to have said that while Birdal "is not affiliated to
the PKK, he is more PKK than anybody else in the organization".
Without Birdal, Ocalan allegedly said, the PKK "would not be able
to establish the present influence we have in Europe".
The unsubstantiated claims, quickly denied by Birdal, gave a green
light to Ersever, Deretarla and Eken, who had formed a covert death squad
specifically to target such "enemies of the state."
"We decided to kill Akin Birdal when we read SakikÝs testimonies
in the dailies," the gunmen are said to have told the police.
According to evidence presented to the courts here, Ersever signed
the two up alongside 15 others to form a death squad code-named the Turkish
Revenge Brigade. All were members of the neo-fascist Nationalist Action
Party (MHP) whose youth wing, the Gray Wolves, have been implicated in
the murders of thousands of dissidents over the last three decades.
"I have scores of others in my list. Those who are the enemies of
the Turkish military and the police are also my enemies," Ersever reportedly
told police interrogators. The original Turkish Revenge Brigades killed
dozens of left-wingers during the civil strife of the late 1970s. One brigade
member, Mehmet Ali Agca, later tried to kill the Pope.
Remarkably, ErseverÝs name has come up before in similar contexts.
He was recently named by witnesses testifying at a parliamentary
commission investigating the so-called Susurluk Affair.
This followed a now notorious car crash on the Susurluk Highway that
revealed top level links between the neo-fascists, the police and MPs from
former prime minister Tansu CillerÝs True Path (DYP) party.
The parliamentary investigation, helped by testimonies from top officials
such as Security Intelligence chief Hanefi Avci, exposed a vast network
of covert death squads. These squads, in the course of the 15 year war
between the army and the PKK, have be en linked with the deaths of some
Ersever, formerly with the GendarmeÝs Intelligence and Counter Terrorism
(JITEM) squad, was named by several witnesses and linked to another former
PKK cadre turned informer, Mahmut Yildirim, codenamed "Yesil" ("Green").
Yildirim in turn has been linked with a number of extra-judicial killings.
Ironically Hanefi Avci was himself in court yesterday, charged with
"revealing state secrets." There he took the opportunity to tell the judge
that though ErseverÝs links with Yildirim was known by the authorities,
he was not prosecuted.
"Turkish Security, the Turkish Intelligence Organization (MIT) and
the Gendarme, all knew this person ŰYesilÝ well; followed him; filed their
information about him, but did not move a finger to shackle him," noted
Kutlu Savas, who led the investigation into the Susurluk Affair for Prime
Minister Mesut Yilmaz.
"Why?" he asked. "The only logical answer to this question is that
YesilÝs operations and activities do not run contrary to the general priorities
and preferences of the administration."
A string of top officials implicated in the running of death squads,
including former interior minister Mehmet Agar, Gendarme General Veli Kocok
and others, so far have escaped prosecution.
"Since the state has declined to prosecute the key figures in the
Susurluk Affair, the gang has come to believe in their own legitimacy and
impunity," says journalist Oral Calislar of the IstanbulÝs daily Cumhuriyet.
"The mafiosi behind this gang have been convinced that they are free to
pursue their activities."
Calislar has also received death treats and currently lives and works
under police guard.
"The attack triggered a revolt among public opinion," Birdal told
IPS yesterday. "They had to investigate the attack and arrest the gunmen
in the face of such a massive reaction."
Thousands of protestors took to the streets in protest at BridalÝs
shooting and a string of high profile visitors to his bedside included
British foreign secretary Robin Cook, in his capacity as holder of the
European UnionÝs presidency.
"Turkey is governed by a totalitarian system that does not recognize
the rights of the opposition," Birdal said. "I have been targeted for I
have been expressing the common belief of so many millions, that basic
human rights can only be implemented he re when peace reigns in Turkey."
A TV JOURNALIST ATTACKED
According to information made available by RSF on 26 May 1998, at
approximately 2:30 a.m. (local time) on 24 May, Adnan Gerger, a journalist
with the private television chain ATV, was attacked by several unknown
individuals IN ANKARA.
Gerger was attacked as he left his car and walked toward his home.
His attackers blocked his path and started hitting him in the face.
They told him: "With everything you have written, did you think you would
get away with it?" Gerger drove himself to the hospital after the attack,
where he was treated for a broken nose.
Gerger noted the license plate number of the car belonging to his
attackers, and the police were later able to question the suspects involved
in the attack, who stated that the fight was due to a traffic dispute.
Gerger had been investigating the attempted murder of Akin Birdal,
president of the Turkish Human Rights Association, which occurred on 12
May 1998 in Ankara.
CONCERNED ABOUT TURKISH MILITARY ACTIONS IN IRAQ
Itar-Tass, May 27, 1998
The Foreign Ministry expressed concern about a
new large-scale military operation launched by Turkish troops in Northern
Turkey, which explains its action by the need to fight the rebels
of the Turkish Workers' Party of Kurdistan who have infiltrated the northern
part of Iraq, should immediately withdraw its troops from there, the ministry
said in a statement on Wednesday.
"Arising problems should be solved not by force, but by civilised
political methods. This is not the first serious violation by Ankara of
the fundamental norms of international law, the sovereignty and territorial
integrity of the neighbouring country. Such actions, let alone a desire
to make them a usual practice, are inadmissible, no matter what justifications
are used," the ministry said.
ULKEDE GUNDEM JOURNALIST
According to information made available by RSF on 28 May 1998, on
27 May, Mehmet Sanli Ekin, a journalist with the Istanbul pro-Kurd daily
"Ulkede Gundem", was placed in detention in the anti-terrorism division.
The journalist was detained when he came to the Security Office in
the Bakirkoy district of Istanbul asking to have his passport extended.
According to his colleagues from "Ulkede Gundem", Mehmet Sanli Ekin's detention
was ordered by the anti-terrorism brigade in Diyarbakir (southeastern Turkey).
Authorities have provided no reasons for the arrest. RSF is concerned
about Mehmet Sanli Ekin's detention, given that the authorities appear
reticent to provide information about the conditions under which he is
being held and the reasons for his arrest.
IRAQ CONDEMNS BORDER
INCURSIONS BY TURKEY
Reuters, May 28, 1998
Iraq on Thursday condemned a Turkish military buildup inside Iraqi
borders, saying Turkey was taking advantage of the absence of Iraqi authority
in the area.
"Iraq categorically condemns the new Turkish invasion to the Northern
Iraqi territories on May 22," the official Iraqi News Agency (INA) quoted
a Foreign Ministry spokesman as saying.
"The series of Turkish invasions of Northern Iraq confirms Turkey's
double standard policy and its role in perpetuating the abnormal situation
there in line with the hostile American- British scheme," INA said.
Officials in the southern Turkish city of Tunceli told Reuters early
this week that soldiers backed by armoured vehicles had entered northern
Iraq in small groups in pursuit of Kurdish guerrillas in the area.
Hundreds of Turkish troops were engaged in fighting with Turkish
Kurd rebels inside northern Iraq on Monday, Turkish security officials
They said up to 1,000 soldiers had crossed into the mountainous enclave
late last week and had killed around 10 guerrillas of the Kurdistan Workers
Party (PKK) in clashes in the Metina and White mountains.
Northern Iraq has been outside Baghdad's control since shortly after
the end of the 1991 Gulf War over Kuwait. It is protected by a Western
allied air force based in southern Turkey.
Iraqi Trade Minister Mohammed Mehdi Saleh accused the United States
of double standards by remaining silent towards Turkey's incursion while
punishing Iraq for invading Kuwait in 1990.
"Now, on this day, there is a huge invasion of Turkish troops in
the northern part of Iraq...in the Kurdish area while the United States
did not say anything about it," Saleh told a news conference on Thursday.
A U.N. official in Baghdad said on Thursday that Turkish military
operations were disrupting the distribution of food in remote areas in
Eric Falt, spokesman for Iraq's U.N. Coordinator in Baghdad, said
"villagers are often forced to flee when faced with troop advances which,
of course complicate food distribution, but the WFP (World Food Programme)
continues its programme in most of the governorate of Duhok."
"The distribution of humanitarian supplies, however, is clearly disrupted
in the most remote areas that are close to the Turkish border," Falt added.
Under a program that went into effect in December 1996, Iraq has
been allowed to export some $2 billion worth of oil every six months to
buy food, medicine and other necessities to help offset the effects of
sanctions imposed by the Security Council in August 1990 in response to
Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
The Security Council raised the amount this February to $5.2 billion
dollars, though Iraq said it would be able to export only about $4 billion
worth of oil in that period.
RECONNAISSANCE DU GENOCIDE ARMENIEN SUSCITE VIVE TENSION
CILDEKT, 29 mai 1998
L'Assemblée nationale a adopté vendredi 29 mai 1998,
en première lecture et à l'unanimité des présents,
une proposition de loi socialiste disposant dans son article que "la France
reconnaît publiquement le génocide arménien de 1915".
Ausitôt, la Turquie a fait part de sa "déception" et les médias
turcs ont déclenché une virulente campagne de presse contre
"La décision prise aujourd'hui par les députés
français n'a aucune autre signification qu'une falsification des
faits historiques", a affirmé le président turc Suleyman
Demirel. Le vice-Premier ministre Bulent Ecevit a souligné de son
côté:"la France nous semblait être le plus proche allié
de la Turquie au sein de l'Union européenne. Nous constatons que
nous avons été trompés. C'est extrêmement dur".
M. Ecevit qualifie la proposition de "déformation historique",
alors que le rapporteur du texte, le socialiste René Bousquet rappelle
que "le total des morts oscille entre 1 500 000 selon les publications
arméniennes et 800 000, chiffre reconnu en 1919 par le ministre
de l'Intérieur turc et accepté par Mustafa Kemal".
Dans une lettre adressée à son homologue français,
Lionel Jospin, le Premier ministre turc, Mesut Yilmaz écrit que
"le peuple turc ne peut accepter l'utilisation du terme "génocide"
pour décrire les tristes événements qui se sont produits
durant la Grande Guerre et il se sent injustement accusé d'un crime
qu'il n'a pas commis, à une époque marquée par de
grandes souffrances des deux côtés".
La Turquie reconnaît la réalité de massacres
mais rejette toute motivation "génocidaire". En marge d'une réunion
de l'OTAN à Luxembourg, le ministre français des affaires
étrangères, Hubert Védrine et son homologue turc,
Ismail Cem s'étaient rencontrés jeudi 30 mai 1998 pour débattre
de cette proposition de loi. Ismail Cem avait fait savoir que les bonnes
relations politiques et commerciales franco-turques pourraient se détériorer
si celle-ci était adoptée. Les pressions sont toujours d'actualité
puisque le Sénat devrait examiner ce texte à l'automne. La
Turquie envisage d'ores et déjà d'exclure les entreprises
françaises de ses prochains appels d'offres dans le secteur de la
défense. La France, interressée par des contrats faramineux
de vente d'armes- qui souhaite notamment vendre des hélicoptères
et des chars à la Turquie- a d'ores et déjà eu des
avertissements du ministre de la Défense turc, Ismet Sezgin qui
déclarait au quotidien Sabah que son pays allait "rééxaminer
les relations de l'industrie de la défense" avec la France.
RECOGNIZED ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
Reuters, May 29, 1998
France's parliament, in a vote expected to infuriate Turkey, on Friday
passed a bill recognising the 1915 killings of Armenians by Turks as genocide.
Turkey had asked France's Socialist-led government to intervene to
stop the bill from being passed, saying trade and diplomatic relations
The bill, passed by the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament,
said: "France publicly recognises the Armenian genocide of 1915."
Seeking to avoid a crisis with Ankara, a cabinet member sought to
distance the government from the bill and told parliament: "Present-day
Turkey cannot be held responsible...for one of the most horrible tragedies
of our century."
State Secretary for Veterans Affairs Jean-Pierre Masseret reminded
the parliamentarians that the cabinet conducted foreign policy and chided
them for "provoking tensions" between Turks and Armenians.
France has one of the largest Armenian communities in Europe, with
about 300,000 people of Armenian origin, most of whom are descendants of
survivors of the 1915 killings.
One descendant, young Gaullist parliamentarian Patrick Devedjian,
was one of the key movers behind the bill. France's best-known person of
Armenian descent is singer Charles Aznavour.
Armenians say Turks killed 1.5 million of their compatriots. Ankara
says thousands of Turks and Armenians died in fighting in 1915 on land
which is now eastern Turkey and Syria.
Turkey called the bill a grave mistake.
"It is not possible or correct to pin the genocide label on Turkey
over the sorrowful events which occurred during World War One," foreign
ministry spokesman Necati Utkan said.
Utkan said Turkish Prime Minister Mesut Yilmaz had sent a letter
to his French counterpart Lionel Jospin asking him to oppose the bill.
"The Turkish people are extremely sensitive about the use of the
word 'genocide' to describe the sad events which occurred during the Great
War and they feel unjustly accused of a crime they did not commit during
a time marked by great suffering on both sides," the Hurriyet daily quoted
the letter as saying.
Several hundred demonstrators in favour of the bill gathered outside
the parliament building where the bill was passed. There was a huge banner
which read, "Thank you France for recognising the Armenian genocide."
In Luxembourg on Thursday, diplomats said Turkish Foreign Minister
Ismail Cem warned French Foreign Minister Hubert Vedrine that trade and
political relations with Paris would suffer if the French parliament adopted
Vedrine told a news conference he had explained that the bill was
a purely parliamentary initiative and said there was no reason why it should
damage relations with Ankara.
Diplomats said Cem told Vedrine that the French government was capable
of controlling its parliamentarians if it chose to do so. The French minister
had replied that the government could not prevent parliament adopting such
Masseret, who represented the government at the debate, noted the
initiative came from parliament itself. "This initiative was taken by you
and the government takes note of the depth of the feelings you have expressed,"
But, he chided the parliamentarians, "Do we want to help stabilise
the region and help to reconcile Turkey and Armenia ? We should be careful
of not provoking tensions, a return to the past and confrontation."
Vedrine had also urged Cem to recognise that France was one of Turkey's
strongest advocates within the European Union. France was working hard
to overcome a crisis in relations between Brussels and Ankara since EU
leaders last year placed Turkey at the bottom of the pile of applicants
French officials said the legislation, proposed by members from both
sides of the lower house, was a purely declaratory measure and amendments
which would have given descendants of Armenians killed the right to claim
compensation had been quashed in committee.
WILL ENTER THE 21ST CENTURY IN JAIL
Turkish Daily News, May 30, 1998
Criminal Court No. 8 of the Court of Appeals approved the sentence
handed down to the journalist and writer, Associate Professor Haluk Gerger.
He will serve 20 months in jail. If Gerger's sentence is not changed, he
will be in jail until February 2000.
Haluk Gerger, a prisoner of conscience, is currently in Gudul penitentiary
near the Ankara district of Ayas. Gerger was sentenced to a year and eight
months of imprisonment and to pay a fine of TL 500,000 by the Istanbul
State Security Court (DGM) because of his article in the daily Evrensel
entitled, "Emergency Rule Region (OHAL) and Operation Providing for Comfort
(OPC)." The Court of Appeals approved the sentence.
Associate Professor Haluk Gerger had previously served 20 months
in jail, and eight other cases have been brought against him because of
his books and articles and his speeches in Cologne and Australia.
British Deputy Bar Chairman Mark Muller, Modern Legal Experts' Association
(CGD) Chairman Ismet Demirdogen and journalist Ragip Duran visited Gerger
in the penitentiary hoping to demonstrate the European legal experts' sensibility
on the issue of criminals of conscience. CHD Chairman Demirdogen said that
they have conducted a comprehensive report on journalists in prison which
they will present to the European Parliament in the coming days.
EROGLU'S BOOK PROMPTS
An investigation has been launched into A. Serkan Eroglu's book "Cicegin
Gozu Yildizlardaydi" (The Flower's Eye Was Turned Towards the Stars) which
was published after his death.
The 19 year-old journalism student was not well-known until he died
under suspicious circumstances. He was found hanged by the belt of his
bag in a toilet cubicle at Ege University on Dec. 25 1997.
The circumstances surrounding his death have remained as unclear
and controversial as his book which the Public Attorney of Izmir wants
investigated. The book contains Eroglu's diary-like writings, a lot of
documents about his death from the Izmir Human Rights Association (IHD)
and some previously published newspaper articles about his death.
Ercan Demir, chairman of Izmir IHD and the Eroglu family lawyer gave
on May 30, 1998, an explanation to the press. He said that it was very
strange that an investigation was being opened about this book because
it contains only apolitical writings -- some of them taken from Eroglu's
diary, and some from art magazines written by Eroglu about literature when
he was 16 years old.
Demir added that although this book was published only a short time
ago the prosecutors have been very quick.
"We waited for the autopsy report from Istanbul for about four months
which proved this was not a suicide case. But the prosecutors have not
done anything about Eroglu's death. They have not carried out any research
or conducted an investigation. I submitted a petition to the attorney and
we are still waiting. When it comes to this book, the prosecutors have
shown us that they can work very quickly. I think they don't want to solve
this murder because they haven't done anything up until now," said Demir,
adding that if Eroglu had not been killed he would have been a great writer.
CITOYENS TURCS SONT INTERDITS DE QUITTER LE TERRITOIRE
En réponse à une question du député F.
Saglar, le ministre turc de l'Intérieur a indiqué que 70.157
citoyens turcs sont interdits de sortir de la Turquie. 45.678 d'entre eux
en raison de leurs dettes envers le Trésor, 22.673 sur décisions
des tribunaux et 1806 sur ordre du Ministère de l'Intérieur
"en raison des inconvénients pour la sécurité générale
En Turquie les citoyens condamnés pour motifs politiques,
y compris et surtout pour délit d'opinion, perdent leurs droits
politiques. Ils ne peuvent être élus ou occuper des emplois
dans la fonction publique et les universités. Souvent, ils sont
également privés du droit de voyager à l'étranger.
PARTI REFAH SAISIT LA COMMISSION EUROPEENNE DES DROITS DE L'HOMME
Après son interdiction par la Cour constitutionnelle turque,
le parti islamiste turc a officiellement saisi la Commission européenne
des droits de l'homme.
Dans leur requête les islamistes turcs accusent le gouvernement
d'Ankara d'avoir violé les articles 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, et 18 de
la Convention européenne des doits de l'homme garantissant les libertés
d'expression et d'association.
Une délégation du Refah dissous conduite par son vice-président,
Sevket Kazan, ancien ministre de la Justice, a, à cette occasion
rencontré le président de la Commission, M. Stephan Trechel.
Un collectif d'avocats français et britanniques plaidera devant
la juridiction de Strasbourg l'affaire du Refah. Verdict dans 2 à
BREF/IN BRIEF (TIHV - La Fondation des Droits de l'Homme de Turquie)
´ A Bolu, l'étudiant Kenan Mak, âgé de 22 ans, est
poignardé à mort par des Loups Gris (militants du MHP).
´ L'ouvrier de confection Bilal Vural, âgé de 20 ans, est
agressé et assassiné par des Loups Gris à Istanbul
alors qu'il se tourne chez lui après le travail.
´ Ahmet Ozdemir, une des victimes de la brutalité policière
pendant la célébration du premier mai à Istanbul,
se suicide chez lui. Le même jour, l'étudiant d'université
Cem Bayrak est agressé et grièvement blessés par des
´ 280 personnes détenues par la police le 1er mai sont traduites
devant la CSE d'Istanbul.
´ La CSE d'Istanbul condamne une militante du TKEP/L, Ayfer Ercan, à
la prison à vie.
´ Des Loups Gris agresse le journaliste Remzi Cakin à Istanbul.
La victime est également un des dirigeants d'une fondation kurde.
´ La Cour de Cassation ratifie la condamnation de deux dirigeants de l'IHD
par la CSE d'Istanbul pour les articles parus dans le bulletin d'information
de l'association: Le président Ercan Kanar et l'éditeur responsable
Izzet Eray sont condamné à une amende totale de 172 millions
´ La CSE d'Ankara condamne le président local de HADEP à
Bolu, Kenan Ayaz, et cinq autres membres du parti à des peines de
prison allant jusque 3 ans et 9 mois.
´ La CSE d'Istanbul condamne deux journalistes du journal Emek, l'éditeur
Halit Keskin et le rédacteur Ahmet Ergin, respectivement à
150 millions LT et 90,5 million LT en amende, pour avoir révélé
le nom de certains agents de sécurité.
´ Des tribunaux pénaux d'Ankara condamnent le rédacteur de
la revue Kur'ani Mucahede, Ramazan Yilmaz, à une peine d'un an et
un chroniqueur du journal Yeni Safak, Ahmet Tasgetiren, à une amende.
´ La revue Odak est confisquée par la CSE d'Istanbul pour avoir
instigué le peuple à la haine et la vengeance.
´ La représentation de la pièce théâtrale La
Ressurection, mise en scène par le groupe Tiyatro Birikim est interdite
à Fatsa par l'ordre du préfêt.
´ La Fondation des Droits de l'Homme (TIHV) est obligée d'annuler
l'ouverture d'une exposition sur les droits de l'homme qu'elle a organisée
à Izmir pour les 9-19 mai 1998, à cause de l'attitude répressive
et dissuasive de la police et la direction de l'Université du 9
´ L'ancien président de l'Association Anti-Guerre d'Izmir (ISKD),
Osman Murat Ulke, est condamné par un tribunal militaire d'Eskisehir
à une peine de prison de sept mois pour désobéissance
aux ordres pendant son service militaire. Ainsi, la durée de ses
peines de prison s'élève à 38 mois au total avec ses
anciennes condamnations par les militaires. Il se trouve actuellement dans
une prison militaire à Eskisehir. La ISKD appelle tout le monde
à envoyer par recommandé des messages de solidarite à
l'adresse suivante: Osman Murat Ulke - 1. Taktik Hava Kuvvetleri Komutanligi
Askeri Cezaevi - Eskisehir - Turquie.
´ Les émissions de la Radio Cevre à Istanbul sont interdites
pour un mois par la décision de la RTUK.
´ La police perquisitionne la rédaction de la revue Halkin Gunlugu
et arrête le rédacteur en chef Ismet Buyukyagci.
´ Hakim Atik, blessé le 4 mai à Istanbul par des Loups Gris
meurt à l'hôpital. Le même jour, un des dirigeants locaux
du MHP à Istanbul, Satilmis Can, est abattu par des inconnus.
´ Le président de l'Association des Hommes d'affaires indépendents
(MUSIAD), de tendance islamiste, Erol Yarar est inculpé pour un
discours qu'il a prononcé en 1997 et il risque une peine de prison
jusque trois ans. Le procureur demande également la fermeture de
´ Le rédacteur en chef du journal Söz à Diyarbakir,
Omer Buyuktimur, et le correspondant Cevat Aytac sont mis en état
d'arrestation pour avoir critiqué dans le journal les procureurs
des CSE de Diyarbakir et d'Ankara.
´ Le président d'une section de Gaziosmanpasa du parti du Travail
(EMEP), Ahmet Karatay est condamné à une amende de 760 mille
LT pour avoir distribué des tracts concernant l'affaire Göktepe.
´ Le chef du service d'information du journal Gundem, Sanli Ekin est arrêté
pendant qu'il se rend à la Direction de la police pour demander
´ Un groupe de Loups Gris agresse des étudiants de gauche à
´ La représentation d'une pièce de Bernard Show, La mort
accidentelle d'un anarchiste, mise en scène à Trabzon par
le group Ekin Tiyatrosu est interdite par le gouvernor de la province.
´ A Baykan, le correspondant du journal Demokrat Baykan, Seyithan Yesilisik,
est battu au poste de la gendarmérie pendant sa détention
´ Le vice-président du parti de la Liberté et de la Solidarité
(ODP), Saruhan Oluc est arrêté à Ankara pour servir
une peine de prison de deux mois à laquelle a-t-il été
condamné par le tribunal militaire de l'Etat-Major pour propagande
´ Le dernier numéro du journal Atilim est confisqué par la
CSE d'Istanbul pour propagande séparatiste.
´ La représentation de la pièce Un roi laid qui est beau,
mise en scène à Diyuarbakir par le Ankara Birlik Tiyatrosu,
est interdite par le gouverneur.