A non-government information service on Turkey
Un service d'information non-gouvernemental sur la Turquie


13th Year - N°148
February 1989
38 rue des Eburons - 1000 Bruxelles
Tél: (32-2) 215 35 76 - Fax: (32-2) 215 58 60
 Rédacteur en chef: Dogan Özgüden - Editrice responsable: Inci Tugsavul


    The fate of Ozal's power will be determined this year by two major political events: the municipal and provincial elections on March 26 and the presidential election in November 1989.
    Ozal's party, ANAP, does not have a genuine mandate to govern the country since November 1987.
    At the legislative elections held at that date, 64 percent of the electors voted for different opposition parties. Though  the ANAP received only 36 percent of the vote,  it acquired 64 percent of the parliamentary seats because of last-minute changes in the electoral system.
    The September 1988 constitutional referendum, which sought early municipal elections, was rendered by Ozal himself into a vote a confidence for the government. The electors confirmed once more their opposition to Ozal's power by casting 65 percent of the votes against the amendments proposed by the government.
    The upcoming municipal and provincial elections provide the next opportunity for the opposition to challenge the mandate of the government party. The outcome of the provincial elections is particularly significant in this regard because every citizen is to vote in them, in contrast to the municipal elections held simultaneously but only in urban areas.
    If the electoral support of ANAP falls much below 35 percent, its credibility will be undermined substantially. Some suggest that the party is an uneasy coalition of not so easily reconcilable orientations and interests, and that a major decline in its electoral fortunes would promote the emergence of centrifugical tendencies in the party. (See: "Holy Alliance and Liberals in ANAP", Info-Türk, December 1988).
    The outcome of these elections will show also the credibility of the social democrat opposition which is divided between Inönü's Social Democrat Populist Party (SHP) and Ecevit's Democratic Left Party (DSP).
    The principal runners of the March 26 local elections and their scores at the November 1987 elections are as follows:
    The Motherland Party (ANAP) 36.3%, the Social Democrat Populist Party (SHP) 24.8%, the Correct Way Party (DYP) 19.2%, the Democratic Left Party (DSP) 8.5%, the Welfare Party (RP) 7.1%, the Nationalist Labour Party (MCP) 2.9, the Reformist Democracy Party (IDP) 0.8%.
    Two new founded political parties, the Socialist Party (SP) and the Greens Party (YP) have not yet prepared themselves to participate in these elections throughout Turkey. Therefore, these elections will not give any idea about the electoral chance of Marxist or ecologist tendencies.
    The result of these elections will have a considerable impact on the presidential election to be held in November. The seven-year office term of General Evren who was nominated "president of the Republic" by force at the 1982 referendum, will end this year.
    The 1982 constitution ensures that the majority party by itself will elect the president. The circles near to the Prime Minister hint that Ozal has intention to succeed General Evren in the Presidential Palace. But, if the local elections end up as an electoral disaster for ANAP, it may become more difficult for it to name the next President of the Republic.


    Turkey comes fourth after the United States, Greece and Britain within the NATO in terms of military spending, according to the latest issue of the magazine Military Balance.
    The magazine, published by NATO, said military expenditures in the U.S. constitute 6.4 percent of the Gross National Product (GNP). In Greece the ratio is 6.3%. Britain and Turkey spend 4.9% and 4.7% of their GNP respectively for military purposes.
    The defense industry development administration (SAGEB) plans to complete in 1989 five out of 13 priority defense projects. The $10 billion projects are all open to investment by international and local companies.
    A high frequency radio project, under discussion for 13 years, is one of the five priority schemes; it will cost an estimated $700 million. There are three contenders for the contract: Plessey and Marconi from Great Britain, and Siemens from West Germany, but the real competition is said to be between the two British companies.
    A light transport aircraft project, costing $100 million is the second scheme. Bids were received last year from four contenders: Casa (Spain), DeHavilland (Netherlands), Nord America (USA) and Air Italy (Italy).
    A mobile radar project is required urgently by the Turkish armed forces, and entails the procurement of 14 advanced radar units. this project is estimated to cost $100 million. Westinghouse, General Electric and the Aydin Corporation (USA), Plessey/Marconi (Great Britain), Thomson CSF (France) and Sellenia (Italy) recently submitted their best final offers for the project.
    Another priority project is for 35mm gun radar. A training plane project will be integrated with the light transport aircraft scheme.
    Negotiations will also be started with the supplier of the light transport aircraft for 50 training planes.
    There are six other schemes which will be spread over 1990 and consecutive years.
    These projects are: F-16 radar project (estimated cost $80 million), low altitude air defense scheme ($75 million), mine sweepers project (estimated cost yet to be established), F/4-E modernization scheme ($50 million), M/113 modernization project ($150 million), composite fuel rocket engine project ($100 million).
    SAGEB signed two of the 13 contracts last year. One of them, for armored personnel carriers, is with the U.S. company FMC, and the local Nurol group. The other is for the local manufacture of F-16 aircraft. The formation of a corporation with foreign capital involvement for the carrier project is continuing.
    Another phase of the contract for the F-16 project relating to the aircraft's electronic equipment was signed with the U.S. Loral Corp. 111 electronic warfare systems will be assembled for the 160 F-16s manufactured in Turkey. This bidding was finalized in December following fierce competition among four companies, three American and one British.


    "I have been under pressure here for the past nine years. But we did not complain until now so as not to appear to come out against the State. I waited until human excrement was fed to the people. I gave a petition of complaint to the prosecutor because all that has been done here does not fit the dignity of the state."
    This is the declaration of a Kurdish village muhtar (headman) to the daily Cumhuriyet of January 24, 1989.
    The incidents reportedly took place during the night of January 14 in Yesilyurt village near the town of Cizre in the Mardin province, two days after two policemen were killed by PKK militants in the area.
    The village muhtar, Abdurrahman Mustak said that the commander of the gendarme team, Major Cafer Caglayan, gathered all the inhabitants at the square of this Kurdish village and asked them the whereabouts of the "terrorists". Failing to get a satisfactory answer, all the men were ordered to lie on the ground and beaten. As a result of the beatings three men have been injured. But no information was given by the residents.
    Then, Kamil Mustak, the headman's uncle, was ordered to collect human excrement and forced to put pieces into the mouths of everyone present.
    On Cumhuriyet's report, three deputies from the social democrat SHP, Cuneyt Canver, Ahmet Turk and Fuat Atalay, went to Yesilyurt talking to the villagers. The same day gendarmes also arrived in the village. They took the muhtar to a deserted house. Once inside the house, the soldiers uncovered a plastic bag in which there were five hand grenades and a mine.
    Canver told journalists that the ammunition found in the deserted house seemed like a plot to arouse suspicion about the muhtar and others living in Yesilyurt who had the courage to write a petition of complaint.
    The deputies also listened to Taybet Dadak, 22, a pregnant woman who said she was given electric shocks and stripped naked while being questioned in Cizre.
    These revelations came just after the wave of arrests in the southeastern Kurdish provinces. On the eve of the March 26 local elections, the security forces arrested nearly 500 people, mainly member or sympathizers of the social democrat SHP, in the towns of Batman, Eruh and Sirnak in the Siirt province, Silvan and Bismil in Diyarbakir and Uludere and Cukurca in Hakkari.
    The SHP chairman, Erdal Inonu said in an interview with the BBC on January 17 that this arrest operation is a plot to tarnish his party's image. "These detained people are accused of assisting the separatist Workers' Party of Kurdistan (PKK). SHP does not have any relations whatsoever with illegal groups. Though the detainees were later released, people now are asking why SP members have been arrested and implicated. They are asking whether membership ion SHP is dangerous. They wonder if it is safe to vote for the opposition party," said Inonu.


    According to a year-end report on foreign investments, foreign entrepreneurs invested a total of $824 million in Turkey, mainly in manufacturing, tourism and service industries. The number of foreign capital ventures went up by 270 in the one-year period.
    Currently, some 827 firms have foreign investments worth $3,163 million and $1.5 billion in foreign capital is expected this year, announced the State Planning Organization's foreign capital department.


    According to the official figures issued by the Justice Ministry, in 1987, a total of 643 tribunals throughout Turkey had to deal with 3.6 million files of which 1.5 million are related to penal pursuits and 2.1 million to civil lawsuits.
    Besides, in the course of the same year, more than new 2.1 million files of penal pursuits were transmitted to public prosecutors.
    While the number of files are so high, only 3,606 judges and 1,922 prosecutors are charged in 643 tribunals and one judge or prosecutor had to deal with a thousand files per year.
    As for the number of detainees in 639 Turkish prisons and detention houses, it rose to 49,315 by the end of 1988. Although these penitentiaries are of a capacity of 99,226 inmates, 64 new prisons are being built in different provinces.


    6.1, in Ankara, 125 people were taken into custody in relation with the TKP Trial which had been opened during the martial law period.
    13.1, the public prosecutor opened a new penal pursuit against three leading members of the Istanbul section of the Human Rights Association (IHD) for having organized a "soirée for a human life".
    23.1, former chairman of the Correct Way Party (DYP), Husamettin Cindoruk was tried by a criminal court of Istanbul for five different cases. In each case, he is accused of having insulted Prime Minister Ozal in his speeches or interviews that he had given while he was at the head of the party. He faces a total of 15-year imprisonment .
    24.1, a new trial began at the State Security Court of Diyarbakir against 34 alleged members of the PKK. The prosecutor claimed death sentences for 10 defendants and prison terms of up to 15 years for the others.
    26.1, a member of the central committee of the Socialist Party (SP), Mehmet Ulusoy was detained in Ankara and all party documents that he had in his possession were confiscated by the Prosecutor of the State Security Court.
    26.1, in Istanbul, the chairwoman and other leading members of the Women Association for Democracy (DEMKAD) were brought before a criminal court, for having participated in a rally organized by the SHP in September 1988 in Istanbul. The prosecutor claimed to ban the association.
    26.1, in Izmir, 29 people were tried at a criminal court for having gone on a hunger strike in protest against inhuman prison conditions.
    28.1, two crippled men in wheelchair, Ali Riza Kayim and Mahmut Kement, were detained for 6 hours by the Istanbul police on the charge of having suspended a political placard on a viaduct.
    30.1, the State Security Court of Malatya began to try 57 alleged members of the PKK. Two defendants face capital punishment and the others prison terms of up to 15 years.
    31.1, the number of the death penalties ratified by the Court of Cassation and submitted to the ratification of the National Assembly reached 23O. Of these people, 121 are from left-wing and 20 from right-wing organizations. Among them are also four Palestinian militants and 85 people condemned for homicide.
    7.2, four provincial officials of the Socialist Party (SP) in Kayseri, Zeki Ok, Mustafa Yildirim, Zihni Dursun and Mehmet Orucoglu, were detained for having used the expression of "Kurdish citizens" in a message that they sent to a party meeting in the eastern province Van.


    The Speaker of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has invited Turkish Prime Minister Turgut Ozal to address the assembly as a honorary guest. This invitation signifies a further step in the normalization of Turco-European relations.
    Such an invitation honoring the responsible of an antidemocratic regime has given rise to reactions from democratic organizations of Turkey.


    The Danish Peace Foundation has attributed the 1989 Prize to the Human Rights Association of Turkey (IHD) for its struggle for respect to human rights in Turkey.
The IHD is also candidate to the 1989 Human Rights Prize of the Council of Europe.


    Spanish member of European Parliament, Arbeloa Muru has tabled a motion asking Turkish Government to recognize political refugee status to the Kurdish refugees who escaped from Iraq's offensive and sought asylum in Turkey. About 50 thousand Kurds are now living in tent camps under harsh winter conditions.
    The Turkish Government abstains from recognizing refugee status to Kurds in the fear that, if it is done, Turkey will have to recognize the Kurdish identity and Kurdish language as well and to provide means for education and cultural activities in Kurdish language. Such a recognition may also lead more than 10 million Kurds of Turkey to claim similar rights.

    The European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, signed by Turkey along with other members countries of the Council of Europe, entered into force since February 1st, 1989. Under this convention, a European commission is to be set up entitled to carry out on-site inspection to detention centers in Turkey. This inspection will be made without a previous warning.
    On this occasion, the Human Rights Association of Turkey (IHD), at a press conference, made public the list of detainees tortured at the Political Police Center of Ankara in 1988 and the medical reports delivered by legal medecin which certify the traces of torture.
    Below are the victims of torture with the date and number of medical reports in parentheses:
    Unal Demir, Tarik Topcu, Serdar Toka, Suat Karabulut (17.3.1988/11326-11327-11334), Cem Ali Timucin (14.3.1988/10833), Kemalettin Karaman (14.3.1988/108325), Ismail Durgut, Cevdet Tastan, Nail Turak (14.5.1988/20031-32-33-34), Remzi Ozturk, Ibrahim Aydogan, Mehmet Kelkitli (15.6.1988/1597), Mehmet Aslan (23.8.1988/31625), Galip Yagan (1.8.1988/3204), Zeynep Aldogan (11.8.1988/33558-59-60-61-62-63-64), Huseyin Can Balicanli (22.9.1988/40059-60), Nadir Nadi Usta (6.10.1988/42265), Mehmet Ali Cakiroglu (6.10.1988/42266), Bayram Balci (30.9.1988/41260), Kadri Esenturk, Tayfun Sen (24.10.1988/44977-78), Ugursel Ozturk (7.11.1988/47140-41-42), Huseyin Colak, Ayca Uslu, Ziya Yavuzes (8.11.1988/47306-307-308), Muzaffer Serdar Kayaoglu, Osman Albayram, Iskender Cetin, Aysel Gurel, Rustu Yuksel, Ahmet Ates (10.11.1988/47592-93-94-600-603), Mustafa Kapikiran (2.12.1988/50911).
    Though the convention has already entered into force, the European commission's control on-site can begin in the fall of 1989.
    However, the daily Cumhuriyet of January 27, 1989 reported that the Interior and Justice ministries of Turkey sent confidential directives to governors, public prosecutors, police departments and prison administrations to take all necessary measures in a view of not giving any evidence of torture to the European commission in the case of a possible instantaneous control by virtue of the European Convention.


    Following a series of revelations by Amnesty International on the violation of human rights in Turkey, the Turkish Government has launched a counter-attack against this non-government international movement.
    The Chief Counsellor of the Foreign Ministry Nuzhet Kandemir, on January 16, 1989, invited the ambassadors of Western countries for transmitting Ankara's wish that European governments should not support certain groups working against Turkey's interests. He told the ambassadors that these groups who are acting as a united front aim, instead to support Turkey's "efforts of democratization", to keep her out of the European political and economic integration.
    In the meantime, the Justice and Foreign Ministries set up a working group in a view of drawing up a report entitled "Torture in EEC countries." According to the daily Milliyet of  January 5, 1989, the group is now gathering informations on the victims of ill-treatment of police and penitentiary authorities in France, Switzerland, Denmark, Portugal, FRG and Spain and the report will be made public in this year.
    Furthering this counter-attack, on January 17, 1989, the Foreign Ministry gave another briefing on "Human Rights in Turkey" to the ambassadors of all European countries as well as the USA and Canada.
    Just after this counter-attack, Amnesty International issued, in its Newslettr of January 1989, a new document concerning prison conditions in Turkey. Under the title of "Did they die under torture?", AI made public the names of 144 prisoners who died in custody and asked the Turkish authorities to provide information on the cause of death in each case. Below, we extract from this list the names of the victims of the last two-year period with the place in which the prisoner held and the date on which AI believes death occured:
    Muhammet Hilmi Musa (Ankara-Feb 87), Hasan Acar (Istanbul-14.2.87), Zulfikar Bayram (Pirinclik-21.2.87), Sabri Cuhadar (Edirne-March 87), Hidir Keskin (Elazig-March 87), Ahmet Cetin (Ankara-16.3.87), Mehmet Temel Oktay (Eregli-20.3.87), Ibrahim Savas (Sirnak-27.3.87), Feridun Celik (Istanbul-22.4.87), Mehmet Kalkan (Diyarbakir-14.6.87), Huseyin Kurumahmutoglu (Ankara 15.7.87), Ibrahim Ozturk (Istanbulk-11.10.87), Kemal Karapinar (Erzurum-2.12.87), Emin Ozkaya (Antalya-Jan 88), Manuel Demir (Istanbul 24.1.88), Nihat Yurtoglu (Ankara-10.4.88). (For a comprehensive list comprising the names of 253 political detainees who have either died during their interrogation or disappeared since their arrest between 1988-1986, See: Info-Türk, November 1986).
    At the beginning of this year, the US Section of Amnesty International launched a campaign concerning Turkey by putting posters on walls on which appears the photo of 15-year old Melih Calaylioglu, arrested in Turkey on pretext of making communist propaganda, with the title: "Growing up is tough everywhere, but in Turkey can be real torture."
    This campaign was reported by the Turkish press as a new AI's plot aimed at destroying Turkish tourism and preventing Turkish adhesion to the European Communities.
    According to the daily Hurriyet of February 6, 1989, the Turkish Ambassador Sukru Elekdag in Washington said: "AI's this campaign is scandalous. The fact that they chosed Turkey among 160 countries as the target of such a slander campaign is the proof of their prejudice against our country."
    Coincidentally, few days later, the situation of human rights in Turkey became the object of a lengthy debate at the US Congress. The US State Department, its in annual report to the Congress, drew once more attention to the ongoing torture practices and the discrimination of Kurds and ethnic and religious minorities in Turkey. During the debate on the report, the Congressmen listened to the representatives of the US Section of Amnesty International and the US Helsinki Watch Committee, respectively David Aasen and Jeri Laber.
    As the controverse on Amnesty International's stand towards Turkey was developing in Ankara, the Secretary General of Amnesty International, Mr. Ian Martin, came to Turkey on the invitation by a Turkish non-governmental group. Speaking at a meeting in Istanbul on February 6, 1988, Mr. Martin explained to a great extent the reasons of his organization's critical stand on the question of human rights in Turkey.
    Refuting the Turkish Government's claim that Amnesty International has a hostile attitude towards Turkey, Mr. Martin said that AI carefully pursues the violation of human rights not only in Turkey but throughout the world and very often draws attention to the sort of Turkish minorities in Bulgaria and Greece.
    The chief of the Turkish part of the Turco-EEC Mixte Parliamentary Committee, Bulent Akarcali, claimed that Amnesty International has always turned down all demands coming from Ankara to have a consultation before editing a report on the situation of human rights in Turkey.
    Mrs. Anne Burley, AI responsible for European countries, who accompanied Mr. Martin, reacted against this claim and said that she had ,when Akarcali came to London in 1986, received him and had a comprehensive talk on all the questions as regards human rights in Turkey.


    In a view to raise the chance of adhering to the European Communities, the Ankara regime decided to resort to the aid of US and European advertisement and public relations companies.
    Milliyet of December 15, 1988, reported that two companies, Havas and Gruner-Jung were already entrusted with the charming campaign in European countries.
    As for the United States, the Turkish Government has signed a contract of $875,000 per year with the International Advisers Inc. This company was reportedly founded by the former US deputy minister of National Defense Richard Perle. During the Reagan administration, Perle was known as the most ardent supporter of the Turkish regime in Washington and very often applauded by the Turkish press as "Turkey's friend in Pentagon."
Perle has been engaged to lobby in the US Congress in favour of Ankara's stand as regards the distribution of US aid, the Armenian Question, the Turco-Greek conflicts as well as to exert pressure on the USA's allies in Europe for Turkey's adhestion to the EEC.


    Considering  insufficient all legal means of censorship on the press, the Government  has presented to the National Assembly a new bill for putting in force new punishments.
If the bill is approved by the National Assembly, by virtue of a new paragraph to be added to Article 312 of the Turkish Penal Code, whoever makes publication intended to create panic or to incite public opinion against any person will face a prison term of from 18 months up to four and a half years.
    According to press associations, this bill was prepared for putting an end to criticisms in the press against the ruling party's leading members or their families who were involved in corruption and irregularities.
    Currently, the Turkish press is already being kept under censorship by strict application of the following laws:
    1. The Press Code No. 5680:
    Articles 5,6 and 7: Whosoever was condemned to a prison term higher than five years,  can never make a publication. Publication in foreign languages is depended on the special permission by the government.
    Article 30: 6-month prison for publishing the documents concerning a penal proceeding.
    Amendment dates 1983: Prosecutors can ban the distribution of a publication without obtaining a court warrant.
    The Press Code authorizes the government to ban the introduction into Turkey of the publications printed abroad.
    2. The Turkish Penal Code:
    Article 140: Imprisonment not less than five years for spreading information abroad which damages the reputation of the Turkish State.
    Article 142: Imprisonment of up to 15 years for disseminating propaganda intended to establish the domination of one class on the others  (communist propaganda) and propaganda undermining national unity and pride (separatism).
    Article 158: Four and a half years imprisonment minimum for insulting the President of the Republic.
    Article 159: Imprisonment of up to six years for insulting the authorities, that is the National Assembly, the government and the Army.
    Article 163: Five to eight years imprisonment for disseminating propaganda intended to convert the State to religious rule.
    Articles 266 and 268: Imprisonment of up to three years for slandering public servants.
    Article 273: Imprisonment of up to four years for slandering a member of the National Assembly.
    Article 311: Three to five years imprisonment for inciting people to commit a crime.
    Article 312: Six months to two years imprisonment for praising a crime
    Articles 426 and 427: Fines for the publications considered "obscene."
    3. The code on police's task and authority: Police can confiscate any publication that he considers "harmful to moral values of the society".
    4. The law No. 1117 for the protection of minors against harmful publications: A special board set up by the virtue of this law can decide to ban the distribution and sale of such publications.


    The London-based Turkish Cypriot business tycoon Asil Nadir added another newspaper in January 1989 to the publishing empire he has recently acquired in Turkey, arousing concern in press and opposition circles that he may eventually monopolize the entire printed media. He reportedly paid about 100 billion TL ($54 million) for taking over the daily Gunes.
    Asil Nadir, the major shareholder of the British Polly Peck Group, who now owns nearly one-third of the Turkish press, is a man who has spent little of his life in Turkey and knows practically nothing about journalism.
    Asil Nadir had first bought the Veboffset Group, which publishes two popular national newspapers, Gunaydin and Tan in addition to a number of magazines and four provincial newspapers.
    Gelisim, the company that publishes the weekly Nokta and 14 other periodicals in addition to 24 encyclopedias, was Nadir's next acquisition.
    As for his last acquisition, the daily Gunes, it was launched in 1982 and changed owner twice before Nadir.
    Press circles claim that Nadir's monopolizing operation is supported by the government.
    The Turkish press accomplished the important technological transformation to offset printing in the 1970's, mainly thanks to heavily subsidized, and therefore cheap, newsprint.
In 1980, as the author of he drastical January 24 economic measures, Turgut Ozal declared that he was against state subsidies. By raising the prices of newsprint and other printing products, Ozal pushed the owners of these press groups to a financial crisis and obliged them to sell their publications to Asil Nadir. The newly-purchased Gunes reported on the January 24 anniversary that the price of paper had gone up 133-fold in nine years, a record among all items.
    Due to the above-mentioned factors on the one hand, and on the other, to the competition of the State Television, the daily total circulation of all newspapers has remained for years at the level of 2.7 million while the population of Turkey increases each year by 2 percent.
    Opposition leader Erdal Inonu said: "There is anti-trust and anti-monopoly legislation even in capitalist countries. Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) is already a government monopoly. The government uses some of the financial means in its hands to reduce the Turkish press to a single voice. Press institutions should resist such monopolistic trends in its own sector."
    According to the data of 1988, the shares of the main national Turkish newspapers in a total of 2.7 million-copy daily circulation are as follows:

    Hürriyet (Erol Simavi)
    Sabah  (Dinc Bilgin)
    Milliyet (Aydin Dogan)
    Gazete (Erol Simavi)
    Günaydin  (Asil Nadir)
    Türkiye (an Islamist group)
    Tan (Asil Nadir)
    Günes (Asil Nadir)
    Tercüman (Kemal Ilicak)
    Cumhuriyet (Nadir Nadi)


    Since Ozal came to power in 1983, the number of new printed books and its proportion to the population show a steady fall, mainly due to the high-rate inflation, expensiveness of newsprint and obscurantist practices of the government.
    Below are the figures published on January 26, 1989, by a right-wing newspaper, Tercüman:

Number of
titles of newly
printed books

Number of
copies of newly
printed books

Number of copies
per 1,000


    2.1, a second book of poet Nihat Behram, "Their hearts are sparks at dawn", published by Yurt Yayinlari, was confiscated by the State Security Court of Ankara. The poet is accused of making propaganda for Communism and provoking the sentiments of hate and hostility in the people. In December, the same court had confiscated Behram's book entitled "The Journal of Death under Torture."
    3.1, journalist Ozcan Ozgür is sentenced to 2-month imprisonment by a criminal court of Mugla for having insulted a müftü (moslem priest).
    5.1, the No.2 of the monthly review Yönelis is confiscated by the SSC of Istanbul on grounds that it contains propaganda for communism and separatism.
    6.1, the editor of the monthly review Yeni Acilim, Sefik Calik, was indicted by the State Security Court of Istanbul. He is accused of communist propaganda.
    9.1, the police of Bursa provinces confiscated four books of Sol Publishing House: Karl Marx's Capital, Nikitin's Political Economy, Huberman's ABC of socialism and Politzer's Fundamental Principles of Philosophy. All these books had earlier been the object of legal proceedings and acquitted by tribunals.
    11.1, famous folk singer Arif Sag, who is also a deputy of the social democrat SHP, was indicted for having insulted the Governor of Ankara.
    13.1, the January 89 issue of the monthly review Emek Dünyasi was confiscated by the order of the State Security Court of Istanbul. Two editors, Yilmaz Eksi and Osman Günes, were indicted by the prosecutor for an article criticizing the privatization of public sector.
    18.1, the trial of Huseyin Coskun, correspondant of the monthly review Yeni Cözüm in Usak, began at the State Security Court of Izmir. He is accused of communist and separatist propaganda in an article.
    19.1, a criminal court of Izmir sentenced Hacay Yilmaz to 6-month imprisonment and a fine of 37,000 TL for having praised the workers' resistance in the Taris Mills of Izmir in 1980.
    20.1, the trial of novelist Kerim Korcan, 70, and publisher Rabia Sen, both accused of communist propaganda in the novel entitled "Bridge of fire", began at the State Security Court of Istanbul. Korcan faces a 10-year imprisonment.
    21.1, university student Serdar Yildiz was detained in Ankara for an article that he wrote to the monthly review Yeni Katilim.
    23.1, two editors of the monthly review Ozgür Gelecek, Mehmet Bayrak and Bekir Kesen, were arrested by the State Security Court of Ankara. Besides, the January issue of the review was confiscated.
    24.1, the chief editor of the monthly Toplumsal Kurtulus, Dr. Yalcin Kücük, was arrested by the State Security Court of Ankara for communist and separatist propaganda.
    24.1, the editor of the humorist review Limon, Tuncay Akgün, was brought before a criminal court in Ankara for publishing a reader's letter. Prosecutor claims that the letter contains slander against Islam religion.
    24.1, the State Security Court of Ankara issued a warrant for arresting Osman Tayfun Mater who edited a book entitled "Before and After the 12th September: Defense at the Dev-Yol Trial". Mater too is one of the defendants of this biggest political mass trial in the last 9-year period. The SSC considered the publication of the defense read at the Martial Law Court as "propaganda for communism."
    26.1, the introduction of 402 different publications into the Aydin Prison was banned by penitentiary authorities. Among the banned authors are also Voltaire and Kafka.


    A member of the EEC/Turkey Joint Parliamentary Committee's Turkish part has been censured by his own party for having raised the Kurdish question at the committee's first meeting at Strasbourg in January.
    Mr. Ibrahim Aksoy, SHP deputy of Malatya province, said in Strasbourg: "It is nonsense to deny the existence of a Kurdish question in Turkey. If there is not such a question, why does it exist there a state of emergency, a regional governership, special police teams, the Second Army and 12 thousand armed village protectors? In my opinion, even to consider Kurds in a minority statut is completely wrong. Kurds are a national community and shoul have their national rights."
    The publication of this news in the Turkish press led to an outburst in Ankara and the right-wing press immediately launched a slander campaign against this deputy of Kurdish origin.
    The SHP leadership had, under the pressure of the military and the conservative electors, to proceed against Aksoy. The party's disciplinary committee,  considering these words contrary to the party's stand, decided to suspend Aksoy's party membership for two years.
    However, this censure has given rise to severe criticisms of democratic circles against the principal opposition party. Even a deputy from the government party ANAP,   Nurettin Yilmaz, said that the SHP's decision is a handcuff put on the liberty of opinion.


    Turkish authorities refused to deliver a passport to Mr. Ferit Ilsever, chairman of the Socialist Party (SP), to go abroad.  Ilsever was invited by the Italian Communist Party to attend the party congress to be held on 18-22 March 1989.


    The government has prepared a bill enabling some of the people who were stripped of their citizenship to regain it. After the ratification of the bill by the National Assembly, the concerned people can apply within two years for repatriation. Applications will be subject to inquiry by the government, and those found "without reserve" may regain citizenship.
    The bill aims to change several articles in the Turkish Citizenship Law . The reason for introducing the draft law was explained as the need to clear contradictions between different cases.Although the preamble of the draft did not say it openly, it was a clear reference to Turkish citizens who have been stripped of their nationality without any appropriate legal ruling simply on request from martial law commanders.
    However, the draft law gives the final authority to the government to say who can become a Turkish citizen.
    There are some 14,000 Turks deprived of their citizenship.


    The High Administration Court of Turkey refused for a second time, on January 18, 1989, to deal with a petition for post mortem reconstitution of Turkish citizenship of the famous poet Nazim Hikmet. The court declared itself incompetent to take a decision on this petition presented by his family.
    Nazim Hikmet fled Turkey in 1951 after a 12-year imprisonment because he was ordered, just after his release, to surrender to the army under the pretext of military service. Thereupon, the Turkish government had deprived him  of his nationality. He lived in exile for 11 years and died in Moscow.

    While the controverse on the persecution of a 15-year old high school student for communist propaganda, police arrested, on January 18, 1989 in Ankara, a 71-year old lawyer,


    While the controverse on the indictment of a 15-year old high school student for "communist propaganda" (See: Info-Türk, January 1989) was spreading out as well in Turkey as abroad, Ankara regime, taking no heed of criticisms, has arrested four more adolescents for the same pretext in February.
    According to Milliyet of February 18, 1989, three students of the Orhan Veli Training School in Umraniye, H.F., M.D. and H.K., were arrested two months ago for having painted some left-wing slogans on the walls of school building.
    H.F. and M.D., both 15 years old, are tried by the Statet Security Court of Istanbul and both face prison term of up to 10 years. As for H.K., who is not yet 15 years old, is tried by a special court for children for the same accusation.
    A 17-year old son of a migrant family, A.K., was arrested two months ago in Turhal for "communist propaganda" and is now tried by a criminal court in Kayseri. A.K. said that he was tortured during police interrogation for obtaining a deposition accepting that he had come to Turkey in order to organize the Communist Party of Turkey/Union (TKP/B) in Turhal.
    On the other hand, the trial of 15-year old Metin Calaylioglu is going on at the State Security Court of Izmir. After being deprived of his liberty for about five months, he was released on February 4. But his trial for communist propaganda has not yet ended. The court waits the medical report of legal medecin and Calaylioglu still faces a 8-year prison term.
    Before the release of Metin Calaylioglu, his mother, Cavidan Calaylioglu attempted to commit suicide  due to a nervous breakdown.
    In the meantime, the school directorTurhan Baysal , who is accused even by the right-wing newspapers for having denounce his own student, was dismissed from his post  on February 8, for calming parents. On this decision, he said: "Is it a crime to denounce a communist?"

Arrest of a 71-year old lawyer

    Police terror takes as target not only adolescents, but also very aged people.
    A 71-year old lawyer, Ibrahim Acan, was arrested by the State Security Court of Ankara on January 18, 1989 for having published a book entitled "A defence Which Judges". This book contains the written defences of alleged members of the Union of Revolutionary Communists of Turkey (TIKB) who were tried by a martial law court in Istanbul.
    Public prosecutor claims that the book was intended to make propaganda for communism and demans a prison term of up to 20 years.
    Acan was born in 1917. After having served in the Turkish Army until 1964, he retired at the rank of colonel. After being graduated from the Law Faculty of Ankara Univerity he became attorney affiliated to the Bar Association of Ankara. He is also member of the Association of Contemporary Lawyers and the Human Rights Association of Turkey.
    In the course of the post-coup period, he took place in many political trials as defence lawyer of defendants.
    According to Cumhuriyet of January 19, Acan was insulted by the prosecutor during his interrogation at the State Security Court and his hairs were cut after his arrest.


    Cumhuriyet of January 4, 1989, reports that the government resorts to every means in order to prevent the organization of university students. Within last two years, about 2,000 univesity students who took part in the attempts to set up student organizations have been detained and 450 of them indicted by criminal courts.
    For the time being, there are about 50 student organizations in 20 universities of Turkey.
    Although the Law on Higher Education, enacted by the military junta, stipulates that the foundation of a student organization depends on university rector's special permission, administrative courts, commenting this obligation in another sense, allowed students to set up their associations without previous permission.
    Thereupon, the university administrations have, with a view to thwarting democratic student organizations, set up puppet associations with the participation of pro-government students. Moreover, all democratic actions of democratic associations have confronted police forces who claim that behind these associations and their actions were outlawed political organizations.
    Recently, on January 19, 17 students of Anadolu University went on a hunger strike in protest against arbitrary arrests and assaults. At the end of January, all of these students were arrested by police.