A non-government information service on Turkey
Un service d'information non-gouvernemental sur la Turquie


13th Year - N°156
October 1989
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 Rédacteur en chef: Dogan Özgüden - Editrice responsable: Inci Tugsavul


        In a new show "à la turque", on October 31, 1989, Prime Minister Turgut Özal has become the "President of the Republic". It is not the confidence of the citizens, but his party's parliamentary group that has elevated Özal from Prime Minister's Office up to the Presidential Palace in a low key parliamentary ballot boycotted by the opposition.             He had failed to be elected in the two previous parliamentary votes, on October 20 and 24, held in the absence of two opposition groups, because he needed 300 out of 450 votes to ensure his elevation.  In the third-round, in which a simple majority of the 450-seat Parliament was sufficient for being elected, he easily obtained 263 votes from his own parliamentary group.
        Özal, aged 62, takes over from General Evren, the leader of the September 12, 1980 military coup, as the country's eighth President but only the second without a military background. In a short address to the half-empty legislature, Özal called his election a "victory for democracy."
        Though General Evren's departure from the Presidential Palace cane be taken as step towards the demilitarization of the regime, the 1982 Constitution drawn up by the military, the institutions set up by this Constitution such as the National Security Council, dominated by the Chief of General Staff and Military Forces Commanders, still remain in force.  Consequently, the Army will continue to play the role of the regime's watch-dog.
        Even prior to the election of the new President of the Republic, it was rumoured that the Armed Forces had intention of staging a new military coup d'état if they are not pleased with the outcome of the election.
        Özal, as the man-on-the-spot of the IMF and the World Bank, has always been the favourite of the military. After the military coup of 1980, while the owerthrown Prime Minister Demirel was being sent to prison, Özal was appointed by the junta as Vice-Premier of the military government.
        It is again the same Özal who has ruled the country since 1983 as the prime minister appointed by General Evren, always in a close collaboration with the National Security Council.

        An unpopular "President of the Republic"

        All opposition party leaders described Özal's candidature as a "historic mistake" and "occupation by force". Although his party has 285 deputies in a 450-seat National Assembly, this parliamentary majority does not represent at all the majority of the population. As his party's share of the vote was 46 percent in 1983 , it plunged first to 36 percent in 1987 and to below 22 percent in this year's local elections. Besides, more than 80 percent of the population, according to opinion polls, did not want him to become president.
        As for his present parliamentary majority, the ANAP had obtained 67 percent of the seats with only 36 percent of the ballot at the legislative elections of 1987, thanks to a last-minute change in the electoral code.
        In fact, Özal's popularity has slumped since he first won office in 1983, when he promised an economic miracle. The miracle has since vanished, leaving in its wake soaring inflation and falling standards of living. The cost of living in has increased 10-fold during his six years in office.  Although Özal is confident of "Turkey taking its place among the most advanced 10 Western nations by the early 2000s," a heavy debt burden, large budget deficits, stagnant economic growth and falling exports are all danger signals.
        As for the human rights records of his 6-year rule, it too has not been so brilliant. Amnesty International, in its new report issued on the same day Özal was elected President, announced that at least 10 people have died in Turkey this year as a result of systematic torture of political prisoners in police custody. More than 500 political prisoners are alleged by the AI to have been tortured this year. (See the AI Report in the following pages).
        "We shall see how anyone can manage as President despite the nation's will," Erdal Inönü, the leader of the Social Democrat Populist Party (SHP), said.
        Suleyman Demirel, the chairman of the Correct Way Party (DYP), claimed that Özal was elected "not by the Parliament, but by the parliamentary faction of the ruling party. Just because of the fait accompli, the nation has no intention of carrying on its head someone it has rejected as a Prime Minister."
        But the force of the rhetoric of the opposition parties in Parliament has been undermined by their failure to provide credible opposition to Özal's nomination. The main opposition SHP had pledged to resign en masse in the event of his election, but awkwardly retracted their threat before the third-round.
        In his seven-year term Özal will no doubt try to regain his own popularity and that of his party. Despite the constitutional obligation on the President to be neutral, Özal has said he will not sever his ties with the Government or the ANAP. His preference as successor for Prime Minister and party chairman from jockeying hopefuls among his party's factions will indicate how much influence and control he still wants within government.

        An Islamist President at the Head of the State

        What is the most important, he has openly declared that he would not take heed of the principle of secularism in the top office. As a tradition, all the presidents of the Republic  had, since Kemal Atatürk, never participated in public prayers. One of the first things Özal did after his election was to go to Friday Prayer at the greatest mosque of the capital and to pray in the presence of a huge crowd. He said he would do same thing every Friday after officially taking over the presidency on November 9, 1989.
        His relations with the Islamist circles and especially with the Saudi fundamentalism have been known since his first appearance as a public figure in Turkey. (See: Extreme-Right in Turkey, Info-Türk, December 1988).       
        Özal, as prime minister, has been the frequent subject of derision by writers and cartoonists, and he has not hesitated to sue those whom he felt had insulted him or his family. His lawyers opened a total of 26 cases, 17 of them against journalists, demanding damages totalling 1 billion TL ($500,000). A day before his election to the presidency, his lawyers opened the latest libel case against the daily Hurriyet for damages of 70 million TL ($35,000).
        As President of the Republic, Özal will not have to bring cases against people criticizing him. By the forcce of law, the public prosecutors will open the cases themselves. According to Article 158 of the Turkish Penal Code, whoever insults the President of the Republic will receive a prison sentence of not less than three years.


    "There are some people who don't like me," said General Kenan Evren, two weeks before his seven-year tenure in office. Speaking with journalists on the porch of his new house in the Aegean summer resort of Marmaris, Evren said them that he would live in this house until the fall of 1990, after which he plans to spend the winters in Istanbul. Although the outgoing president expects to lead the quiet life of a retired man, his victims are not willing to grant him this luxury. His 9-year repressive rule, two years as the chief of the
military junta and seven years as "President of the Republic", earned him many adversaries.
    Aziz Nesin, Turkey's internationally famous humorist who led the intellectuals' petition in 1983, said he is determined to sue Evren for his remarks about the signatories.
    Nesin's earlier attempts to sue Evren were turned down by Turkish courts. He even filed a complaint to the European Human Rights Commission, but the case was denied on the grounds that it took place before Turkey had granted its citizens the right to apply to the commission.
    Now that Evren will no longer benefit from presidential immunity, Nesin says, he is confident that the courts will find his application eligible.
    "Other cases must be opened against Evren, because he is the chief architect of the military coup. These cases must be opened so that no other general in the future will have the courage to stage a takeover," said Nesin.
    In the fear of a more radical revenge act, Evren has made his Marmaris house surrounded by a high-tech electronic security system and guarded by three separate security teams.


        Amnesty International issued in October 1989 a new research on Torture and Unfair Trial of Political Prisoners, based on case studies between August 1988 and August 1989. According to the report, at least 500 political prisoners have been tortured in police custody and 10 people died as a result of torture in Turkey this year.
        "It is more than five years since the return of civilian government in Turkey in November 1983, after three years of military rule but Amnesty International has not observed any fundamental change in the nature of human rights abuses in Turkey. Chief among the organization's concerns is the widespread and systematic use of torture, in some cases resulting in the death of prisoner," says the report.
        "Amnesty International believes that the systematic nature of torture in Turkey can be deduced from the following facts:
        "1. the number of torture allegations (during the past eight months alone Amnesty International has received hundreds of torture allegations including reports that prisoners died in custody as a result of torture);
        "2. the same methods of torture are reported by almost all detainees blindfolding and stripping detainees naked, beating on all parts of the body and in particular on the soles of the feet (falaka), hosing with ice-cold water and applying electric shocks;
        "3. confessions extracted under torture are frequently used as prime evidence, in particular in political trials in military and state security courts
        "4. the reluctance of the Turkish Government to take effective measures to prevent torture, such as permitting detainees in practice to have prompt access to lawyers, relatives and doctors.
        "Amnesty International continues to be concerned also about the imprisonment of prisoners of conscience and the imposition of the death penalty in Turkey. This report, however, concentrates solely on the torture of political prisoners and shows how statements extracted under torture contribute to the denial of fair trials to political prisoners."

        Recent Deaths in custody

        "Mehmet Yalcinkaya, convicted of membership of PKK, and Huseyin Husnu Eroglu, on trial for alleged PKK membership, died on 2 August 1989. They had been on hunger-strike for 35 days in protest against restrictions introduced at the end of June in Eskisehir prison. On 2 August they and a further 257 prisoners on hunger-strike were transferred to Aydin Prison. When they arrived at the prison after a 15-hour journey, they were reportedly stripped naked, hosed with ice-cold  water and beaten. The Public Prosecutor in Aydin announced that an autopsy had established that the two prisoners died because of dehydration. However, a second autopsy on Huseyin Husnu Eroglu reportedly also found bruises on the body.
        "Another recent death was that of Seyhmus Orhan from Yoncali village, near Hakkari He died on 18 July 1989 following interrogation by the security forces; On or around 18 July a group of soldiers, whose vehicles had broken down, approached Yoncali village in search of Kurdish guerrillas reported to be operating in the area. Some villagers started to run from the fields when they heard shots; Two of them, Bunyamin and Sabri Orhan, were killed, but at least six of the villagers surrendered shortly afterwards, including Seyhmus Orhan.
        "They were taken by helicopter to the Command of the 118th Gendarmerie Regiment. The next day Seyhmus Orhan was dead. According to the official version of events, he was shot while trying to escape. The villagers, however, alleged that he had been killed under torture and shot afterwards. Five of his fellow detainees also alleged that they had been tortured and had to be treated in hospital.
        "It is difficult to gather information from southeastern Turkey, where there have been violent clashes between the Kurdish guerrillas and the Turkish security forces since August 1984. Sometimes facts emerge only years after the event. In February 1989 both the Turkish and international news media reported that a mass grave been found in Siirt. Although some 60 bodies were said to have been dumped in the grave, known as the "Butchers' River" (Kasaplar Deresi), the first reports named only eight. Later the names of another 18 victims were published in the Turkish Press.
        "Amnesty International remains concerned that it has not received satisfactory explanations from the Turkish Government for over 170 deaths in custody which occurred in the last 10 years, and that most of these deaths appear to have been related to torture. The organization believes that most of these cases have not been thoroughly investigated and has urged the government to initiate impartial investigations into all those cases where the cause of death remains unclear.

        Ill-treatment in prisons

        "In most cases torture is inflicted by the police and takes place in police stations and detention centers, but Amnesty International has also received detailed allegations of torture inflicted in military and civil prisons.
        "In September and October 1988 Amnesty International received a series of allegations of ill-treatment concerning political prisoners in Gaziantep, Bursa and Sagmalcilar Prisons, followed by a wave of hunger-strikes which continued until the beginning of December 1988.

        Unfair trial

        "Trials at military courts were still continuing in August 1989 despite the fact that martial law had been completely lifted in July 1987. Since May 1984 special courts known as state security courts have been established in eight Turkish cities. However, these state security courts only began to operate after martial law had been lifted in the areas under their jurisdiction. Diyarbakir State Security Court, for instance, only started to operate in July 1987. These courts hear cases involving political offences committed after 1 May 1984. Their jurisdiction, as provided for in Article 143 of the 1982 Constitution of Turkey, covers offences against the state and offences directly involving the internal or external security of the state.
        "These courts assumed the duties of the military courts in trying political offences and appear to have been influenced by the system of military justice. many of the security court judges draw their expertise from their previous periods in office at military courts and one out of three judges in the panel must be a military judge of first rank.

        AI Recommendations

        "Amnesty International has repeatedly urged the Turkish Government to take effective steps to prevent torture. Draft amendments to the Turkish Criminal Procedure Code announced by the Council of Ministers in September 1989 fall short of internationally recognized standards and Amnesty International's recommendations to the Turkish Government concerning safeguards for the prevention of torture. These include the obligation to bring all detainees before a judicial authority promptly after detention, to allow prompt access not only to lawyers, but also doctors and relatives, and to ensure that detainees in police custody (gÖzalti) have the right to confer privately with legal counsel In addition, Amnesty International has called on the Turkish Government to establish a procedure by which allegations of torture are properly investigated by an institution independent of the police and the prosecutor's office;
        "Amnesty International has also repeatedly urged the Turkish Government to ensure fair and prompt trials for all political prisoners, if necessary by amending the Turkish Criminal Procedure Code. The organization calls on the Turkish Government to implement all internationally recognized standards concerning fair trials for political prisoners, in particular:
        "1. to ensure that the use of statements extracted under torture cannot be admitted into the proceedings;
        "2. to ensure that detainees are granted adequate time and facilities for consultations with their lawyers and, in particular, that such consultations can be conducted in private;
        "3. to impose on courts the responsibility for ensuring that
defendants have had adequate time and facilities to prepare their defence;
        "4. to ensure that political prisoners are tried by a competent, independent and impartial court."


    Turkish universities started the new academic year in the beginning of October 1989 in an atmosphere marked by student demonstrations.
    At the Middle East Technical University (ODTU), Prime Minister Özal gave a speech to approximately 50 students in a lecture hall meant to hold 300, that was largely filled by policemen and university professors.
    When a group of students tried to enter the hall during Özal's speech, they were blocked by police. Security forces detained approximately 20 students, and one student was taken to the hospital as a result of kicks sustained in the scuffle with police.
    In opposition to the university-sponsored opening ceremonies some of the student associations at Istanbul and Ankara universities celebrated the start of the academic year with alternative ceremonies that included folk dancing, playing the saz (Turkish musical instrument) and guitar.
    The student associations declared: "The university authorities chose a student to give a speech on so-called developments at the universities without mentioning the multidimensional academic problems, the investigations and discipline punishments [for violating rules set up by the Higher Education Council (YOK).] Our alternative ceremony, which reflected the new spirit of energy and dynamism aimed at presenting the problems of students and called on all students to seek solutions."


    15-year-old high school student Melih Calaylioglu was finally cleared of charges of spreading communist propaganda. The court in Izmir decided on October 10, 1989, that the evidence submitted was not sufficient to prove his guilt, ending one of the most controversial political trials in Turkey. Young student collapsed in the courtroom after hearing the decision. He thanked the judges for their decision when he recovered.
    The young student's troubles began on October 19, 1988,  when
Turan Baysal, the principal of the Esrefpasa High School in Izmir, informed the local prosecutor's office that Calaylioglu had been spreading communist propaganda in the school by drawing communist symbols on desks and notebooks and praising communism in his talks with his friends. The high school student was promptly arrested by the Izmir political police and remained behind bars for 87 days in Izmir. In the meantime, Izmir State Security Court opened a case against him with the prosecutor claiming a seven to 15-year prison term.
    The court released Calaylioglu in December 1988, but he was sent to Istanbul for psychiatric examination at the forensic center. Calaylioglu was held incommunicado for 3 days in Istanbul where a group of doctors held him under constant observation to determine whether he was mentally fit to stand trial. The report submitted to the Izmir court by the doctors said although the young man has no mental disability that would exempt him from punishment, cultural differences between Turkey and West Germany where he was brought up and his problematic family circumstances should be taken into consideration at his trial.
    The court dismissed the report saying that it was ambiguous and sent Calaylioglu again to Istanbul for examination. The second report said the high school student was fit to stand trial.
    At the beginning of the current academic year, the Governor Ayaz of Izmir intervened and permitted Calayoglu to attend classes at the Esrefpasa High School. But a disciplinary committee decision coming from the Education Ministry in Ankara said Calaylioglu should be barred from attending school in Izmir and should continue his education somewhere outside the city. Governor Ayaz, despite this decision, gave permission for Calaylioglu to continue his education in Izmir.
    Calaylioglu's case was also introduced in the National Assembly with two opposition deputies criticizing the treatment of the young high school student by the Education Ministry.

    Other young victims of persecution

        As Melih Calaylioglu was being acquitted, many other were still subject to repressive practices throughout Turkey.
        September 11, in Diyarbakir, 11-year old A.0. was pursued by the public prosecutor for having presented to singer Bilgesu Erenus a flower during her concert, by saying "I present you this flower on behalf of all children of Kurdistan."
        September 13, in Erzurum, fourteen youngsters between 8 and 12 years were taken into police custody on grounds that they sit before a wall on which some political slogans were painted. They were kept in detention for eight days.
        October 16, in Denizli, the public prosecutor indicted three 13-year old secondary school students, O.O., A.C. and O.A., for having painted on wall the name of an outlawed political organization. Each of the three students faces a prison term of up to 2 years.
        The weekly Sokak of October 15, 1989, reports that two  high school students, G.O. and I.A., were indicted in Istanbul for having distributed the tracts of an outlawed organization. G.O. was condemned to a 5-year prison term, the other acquitted.
        According to the same weekly, in August 1989, a high school student, Y.O., was arrested in Istanbul for painting political slogans on the school's walls and participating in a political meeting. Still tried at the State Security Court, he faces a prison term of up to 24 years.

        Turkey on the black list

        On the other hand, two international organizations, Terre des hommes and Défense des enfants internationale, in a report that they sent to the United Nations, claim that Turkey is one of the countries where children are often detained and subjected to torture.
        According to this report, the duration of detention for children goes over one year and a third of the detained children are subjected to ill-treatment and torture in interrogation centers or detention houses. The two organizations report as an example that a 16-year old girl who had been violated and tortured for 15 days at the police headquarters of Istanbul and kept in prison for three months in 1988.


    Acting on a written request, Prime Minister Turgut Özal's cabinet decided at the beginning of October, to ban Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses. Two other publications, Insight Guide to Turkey and the German magazin Geo Special Turkei were also banned. No reason was given for the ban, and it was announced anyone caught smuggling these books into Turkey would stand trial.


    After their release, the nine members of the musical group Yorum were arrested again, following the detention of 69 people at their concert on October 8, 1989, marking the 20th anniversary of Dev-Genc (Revolutionary Youth Organization) at istanbul Open-Air Theater. Under police custody, the musical group started a hunger strike, claiming they had been subjected to torture.
        Earlier, on September 12, the musicians were released by a criminal court in Icel following a 63-day detention. They had been arrested in Mersin when they were making a sit-in in protest against  the governor's decision to ban a concert that they would give in this city. The anti-establishment singers said that they had been tortured during their detention and that the three female members of the group subjected to an examination of virginity.


    A Danish musical group, Savage Rose, became the target of police chase after having given a concert in Istanbul in solidarity with the musical group Yorum. On September 17, police teams carried out raids on the residence where the Danish musicians stayed and the Association of Solidarity with the Families of Political Prisoners (TAYAD). Two leading members of the Danish Group, Thomas Koppel and Anisette Koppel, could escape arrest thanks to the intervention by the Danish Foreign Ministry.

        5.9, the September issue of the monthly Emek was confiscated by the order of the State Security Court of Istanbul for containing separatist propaganda.
        6.9 the first issue of a monthly review, Vatan Gunesi, was confiscated by the order of the State Security Court of Istanbul, for some articles on the Kurdish question.
        10.9, the owner of the Yurt Publishing House, Mr Unsal Ozturk was arrested by a criminal court in Ankara for having published a book entitled Interrogations without addresses. The court also ordered the confiscation of the book.
        13.9, the public prosecutor of Izmir opened a legal proceeding against famous folk singer Ahmet Kaya for having, during a concert, called on the listeners to raise their fists and to repeat political slogans.
        13.9, A defendant of the Dev-Yol Trial, Tayfun Mater, was sentenced to a prison term of 16 months and 20 days by the State Security Court for having published the defenses in a book entitled Before and After September 12th.
        18.9, Miss Gulten Demir, chief editor of the youth review Devrimci Genclik was arrested by the State Security Court of Istanbul. The editorial staffs of four reviews, in a joint communique, protested against this arrest and asked for the release of all those who were detained on political grounds.
        19.9, professor Yalcin Kucuk,  chief editor of the monthly Toplumsal Kurtulus, was taken into custody in Ankara for his interviews with Abdullah Ocalan, Secretary General of the Workers' Party of Kurdistan (PKK), published in the last issue of the review. He was kept under arrest for five days.
        20.9, the prosecutor of the State security Court of Ankara opened six new cases against the monthly Toplumsal Kurtulus and indicted Chief Editor Yalcin Kucuk and responsible editor Ilhan Akalin for communist and separatist propaganda.
        21.9, in Sivas, Tayip Bay was arrested and indicted by the Kayseri State Security Court for having listened to some musicassettes containing Kurdish ballads.
        26.9, Aytac Varol, responsible editor of the monthly Yönelis was arrested by the State Security Court of Istanbul for separatist propaganda.
        27.9, a teacher of the School of Blinds in Ankara was arrested for having objected to the school administration's order to take the students to prayer in a mosque.
        27.9, the September issues of two monthly reviews Medya Günesi and Yeni Demokrasi, were confiscated by the order of the State Security Court.
        28.9, famous folk singer Rahmi Saltuk was tried by a criminal court in Istanbul for his musicassette entitled Hoy Nare containing two Kurdish ballads.
        29.9, Okay Gonensin responsible editor of the daily Cumhuriyet, was brought before a criminal court in istanbul for having published some necrological announcements containing political expressions. He faces a 6-year prison term.
        29.9, Servet Engin, responsible editor of the daily Zaman, was condemned by a criminal court of Ankara to a one-year prison term for religious propaganda The prison term was later commuted to a fine of 855,000 Turkish Liras (about $400).


    The Writers in Prison Committee of International PEN issued in September 1989 a detailed report on the writers and journalists who are victim of State repression. Ten out of 62 pages of the report are filled with the names of Turkish and Kurdish journalists and writers who are either imprisoned or awaiting trial under arrest.
    On the other hand, the 54th Congress of the PEN was held last in Montreal with the participation of 600 delegates from 62 countries. Since the affiliation of the Turkish PEN was not approved by the Turkish Government, Turkey was not represented at the Congess.   
    The congress made a statement at the conclusion that government censorship in Turkey, South Africa, Burma and Rumania should be abolished.
    One of the congress participants made a request to the Turkish Government at the meeting for the release of Recep Marasli, a Kurdish writer and publisher jailed in Turkey since 1982.


        The 9th anniversary of the September 12, 1980 coup d'état was marked by a series of protest actions throughout Turkey. Police arrested 160 people in Istanbul for "unauthorized demonstration."
        The other arrests and political trials in September:
        11.9, four defendants at the trial of the Liberation Organization of Turkey and Nothern Kurdistan (TKKKO) were condemned by the State Security Court of Istanbul to prison terms of from five to eight years.
        11.9, police announced the arrest of ten militants of the Communist Party of Turkey/Union (TKP/B). Besides, a young girl was arrested on the charge of placing explosives in the US Consulate in Istanbul.
        12.9, the trial of five leading members of the Human Rights Association of Turkey (IHD) began at the State Security Court of Ankara. The Secretary General of the IHD, Akin Birdal, and for other members of the administrative board, Yavuz Onen, Mahmut Tali Ongoren Emil Galip Sandalci and Bulent Tanor are accused of having made declarations harmful to the country's interests during their a meeting at the French Parliament in Paris.
        27.9, twelve alleged members of the Union of Young Communists of Turkey (TGKB) were released during their trial at the State Security Court of Istanbul.
        30.9, the President of the Association of Women for Democracy (DEMKAD) was taken into custody by police.


        On September 1, 1989, four Swedish nationals Urban Thoreli, Nikel Anderson, William Eliakson and Olaf Dencel Sivenson were arrested at Mugla of making Christian propaganda. Pamphlets on Christianity were said to have been discovered in their baggage.


        Turkish press of September 21, 1989 reported that the chief of the State Hospital of Cizre in Mardin, Dr. Abdullah Bolcali, was detained and subjected to torture for having given medical care to some Kurds who were wounded by security forces during armed clashes with the PKK guerrillas. He was kept under arrest for ten days.
        After his release, Dr. Bolcali said: "I have no relation with the PKK. My duty as a doctor is to give medical care to whomever in need. I cannot know if the patient is a terrorist or not. Furthermore, I am not obliged to verify it, it is not my duty."
        The Union of Turkish Doctors (TBB) reproached the detention of Dr. Bolcali and declared that a doctor has to give medical care even to an enemy soldier in the time of war, if the latter is wounded.
        On September 11, 1989, the Socialist Party announced that one of its members, Osman Gencer, was beaten for intimidation at police stationof Tekirdag.
        On September 28, the daily Cumhuriyet reported that a student leader, Erkan Kalafat, and his brother were tortured by police during their 19-day detention at the police center of Icel.


    Turkey's torture victims will be able to receive treatment at a rehabilitation center set up by the Human Rights Association of Turkey (IHD) if it can obtain the necessary court permission to operate.
    Nevzat Helvaci, chairman of the IHD, told that legal proceedings for the establishment of the foundation started at the end of September 1989 and it is now awaiting the magistrate court's permission to implement its goals.
    Helvaci cited the foundation's main goals as providing health services at a rehabilitation center to people who have developed physical and mental problems as a result of torture and inhuman practices sustained during detention and imprisonment
    Another goal of the foundation is to conduct research and study on human rights issues to be gathered at a documentation center.


        Turkey's two biggest industrial groups, Koc and Sabanci, last year widened the gap between their sales and profits and those of other industrial groups. Koc made the most from sales, 8.1 trillion TL; Sabanci the highest profit, 750 billion TL. Total 1988 sales of the eight top holdings, Koc, Sabanci, Akkok, Profilo, Sönmez, Alarko, Sise Cam and Yasar Holding reached 19.5 trillion TL, a figure near Turkey's 1988 budget of 21 trillion TL.
        - Sales: Koc group sales were the highest at 8.1 trillion TL, followed by the Sabanci group with 6 trillion TL. Immediately after these longtime rivals came Sise Cam, one of Isbank's affiliates, with 2 trillion TL sales. Izmir-based Yasar Holding, which produces Pinar-brand foodstuffs, made 1.2 trillion TL in sales; chairman of the Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association Omer Dinckok's Akkok group 1 trillion TL; the Bursa-based Sönmez Holding 457 billion TL; Profilo 402.3 billion TL and Alarko 234.3 billion TL. In 1987, Koc and Sabanci sales were 4.3 and 3.2 trillion TL respectively.
        - Profits: Sabanci made a record profit in 1988, 750 billion TL. Koc, which did best in sales, came second in profits with 688.6 billion TL. Other groups which issued their balance sheets fell behind these two giants. Sise Cam made 135 billion TL, Akkok group 110 billion TL, Sönmez 67 billion TL, Yasar Holding 29 billion TL and Alarko 26.5 billion TL profit last year.
        - Exports: In 1988, the eight groups together exported goods worth $2.1 billion, 18 percent of Turkey's total exports of nearly $12 billion. Koc exported goods worth $552 million, Sabanci $278 million, Sise Cam $240 million, Yasar $159 million Akkök $113 million, Sönmez $87.2 million, Alarko $39.5 million and Profilo $12 million.
        - Profitability: Sönmez had the highest profitability ratio among companies issuing their balance sheets. Sönmez made 14.6 percent profit on every 100 TL worth of sales, i.e. 14.6 percent profitability. Sabanci ranked second with 12.5 percent profitability. The ratios of profitability over sales for other companies in the group are: Alarko, 11.3 percent; Akkok, 10.8 percent; Koc, 8.5 percent; Sise Cam, 6.7 percent. Profilo has not yet announced its sales.
        - Profit per Staff member: Sabanci ranked first in profitability per staff member, a figure calculated by dividing profits by the number of staff. Last year, at Sabanci, this figure was 25 minion TL. If we consider the average wage at Sabanci to be around 1 million TL per month, then every Sabanci staff member provided his company with twice as much as his annual salary. Koc ranks second, with a profitability ratio per staff member of 20.4 million TL. Comparable figures from the other groups are as follows: Akkok, 10.9 million TL; Sönmez 10.5 million TL; Sise Cam 7.3 minion TL; Alarko 4.0 million TL and Yasar 2.8 million TL.


    The State Planning Organization (DPT) has recently announced that the number of foreign capital companies active in Turkey now totals 1,401, the amount of foreign capital reached 1.53 trillion TL ($6.67 billion). A total of $846 million in foreign capital has been permitted to enter Turkey in the first nine months of the year.
    The service sector has become the favorite sector for foreign capital investments. Of the foreign companies in Turkey, 67.4 percent are active in such service sectors as trade and banking.
    As for the manufacturing sector, it was chosen only 27.5 percent of foreign companies. While the food industry ranks at the top of the manufacturing industry with 53 companies, non-industrial chemical products rank second with 40 companies.   
    Considering all the foreign companies which obtained permission to operate in Turkey through the end of September 1989, West Germany ranks at the top with 216 companies. The share of the West German companies in the total foreign capital is 384.3 billion TL.
    After West Germany Iran ranked second as a source of foreign capital with 161 firms.


        November 1988 - No 145

        Hunger strikes in Turkish prisons; New Info-Türk pamphlets; Counter-guerilla turns into territorial force; Protest actions by prisoner families; Gendarmery taken over by the army; Putschists accused at parliament; Government ceded before the military; State of emergency extended; A military torturer shot dead; Amnesty International's new appeal; Arrest of foreign observers at trial; Four innocents assassinated by police; 22-Year prison to a Kurdish mayor; Other political trials; Midnight arrest of intellectuals; 27 journalists and editors in prison; New pursuits against intellectuals; Professor Küçük tortured; A ballet choreographer in trouble; Confiscation of publications; Protest demonstration of doctors;  No reinstatement of citizenship; No citizenship to Nazim Hikmet; A new victim of passport ban; Worsening conditions of Kurdish refugees;  US ambassador's strange visit to the East;  Protest actions by university youth;  Drama of migrants returning home.

        December 1988 - No 146

        Dangerous escalation of extreme-right in Turkey; Saudi-Iranian duel in Turkey; Turco-Islamic alliance within the ANAP; Özal: the man of the Naksibendi order;  Independent Moslem intellectuals;  Scission in The Grey Wolves movement;  Grey Wolves in the Holy Alliance of ANAP; Challenge to Türkes in  Europe;  Centrist operation within the SHP;  New pursuits against Grey Wolves;  Hunger strike nears end;  227 death sentences at parliament;  Recent political prosecutions;  Pressure on intellectual life;  A center of post-torture rehabilitation;  New PKK blow to the Army;  Turco-European relations;  No solid support to Özal in Paris; 16.696 workers on strike;  1.9 million working days lost in 1987;  Racist and xenophobic acts in Europe.

        January 1989 - No 147

        A 15-year old political accused, in Turkey… and in 1989!; Journalists still in prison; Journalists at tribunals; Recent actions against the press;  General Evren and intellectuals; Unlawful extradition of five exiles; Amnesty International accuses Turkish government;  International tribunal condemned the Turkish regime;  Political trials at the End of 1988;  Underworld godfathers freed; Troubles in Turkish prisons;  Top judge knocks '82 constitution; IPI criticizes Turkish press regime;  The Human Rights association of Turkey
candidate for 1989 European prize;  Socialist party legitimated;  IHD acquitted by court;  A tough year for Turkish economy;  Increasing worker militancy;  A new banking scandal; Turkish troops to central Europe?;  Fundamentalism gains support;  Holy Alliance anti-western show;  Dispute on Islamic head coverings;  Severe cold kills Turkish refugees;  Archives on Armenian question;  EC/Turkey joint Parliamentary Committee met for first time in eight years.

        February 1989 - No 148

        Two crucial tests for Özal;  Kurdish peasants forced to eat human excrement by the military;  A Kurdish deputy censured by his party;  A motion for Kurds;  Danish prize to the IHD; More adolescents arrested for communist propaganda;  Arrest of a 71-year old lawyer; Other new political pursuits; Turkish courts overcharged;  Foreign capital inflow; A new anti-press law project;  Monopolization and decadence in the Turkish press;  Decrease in book printing;  New pursuits against the press;  State terror on student organizations;  Party chairman banned to go abroad; A bill to restore citizenship;  Second refusal for Nazim Hikmet;  European control on torture;  Turkish government's counter-attack against Amnesty International;  Özal to address the Council fo Europe;  Ankara hires publicity firms; Turkey 4th in military spending.

        March 1989 - No 149

        Autodafes; Ankara's Satanic Stand on "The Satanic Verses" and Fundamentalist demonstrations throughout Turkey; Turkey: Champion of destroying books; Is Tehran behind demonstration?; Controversy on demonstrations; Turkey's stand and the West;Ankara and the Satanic Verses;  Islamic investments in Turkey; Persecution in February; Books banned in Turkey since 1955;  442 deprived of nationality;  No passport to a filmmaker;  Ankara's defense on torture;  Prison doctor reports torture;  Turkish Regime's double-faced attitude;  Other cases of torture;  Hunger strikes in prisons;  DISK to reorganize itself;  US Unions' action against Ankara.

        April 1989 - No 150

        Özal Routed at local elections; Distribution of big city municipalities;  Distribution of town municipalities;  First murder related to Rushdie affair in Belgium;  An appeal by a group of Turks and Maghrebians in Belgium; Privileges of Turkish officers;  Former army generals in Business;  Monopolization in Turkish economy;  State terrorism throughout Turkey;  Medical report on Calaylioglu;  Strike stopped by government;  European Parliament's report on Turco-European economic relations;  Huge tax rebate for exporters;  NATO talks and Turkey;  Jewish lobby supports Ankara;  Recent data on Turkish immigration;  1,2 million Turks repatriated;  Turkish business in Germany;  Climbing of far-right in Germany; Xenophobic aggressions in Germany.

        May 1989 - No 151

        Bloodshed on May Day; More terror by police in two months;  Persecution of students;  Özal's face-lifting after electoral defeat;  Gain of extreme-right parties;  Arrest of an Islamist mayor;  Islamist mayor's segregationist actions;  Islamists in defense of Jesus;  Helsinki Watch report on Turkish prisons;  Amnesty international's new report of Turkey;  International conference: Human Rights in Kurdistan;  Recent violations of press freedom;  Rectification from the German Greens;  Helsinki Watch on the press;  Return of six more exiles.

        June 1989 - No 152

        Political tumult in Ankara; May Day detainees tortured;  Chief judge accuses the government;  Political prisoner suffering from Leukemia;  A torture victim at Parliament;  Fundamentalist attack on journalists;  Protest from IPI and CSCE;  Censorship in 50 provinces;  36 publishers in the dock;  Prosecution of the media in May;  More troubles in prisons; Meetings on torture banned;  7,000 deaths sentences claimed;  Arrests and trials in May;  100,000 political refugees from Turkey; Yagci-Sargin case at Strasbourg;  A British teacher to be expelled;  Wage rises under inflation rate;  Injustice in regional investment;  Armament fair in Ankara;  Turkey-South Africa trade;  US bases in Turkey to be modernized; European Parliament adopted three resolutions on Human Rights in Turkey; Turkey-EEC Parliamentary meeting;  Özal's failure in Brussels talks;  Ankara's anger against Mrs Mitterrand;  Growing Turco-Bulgarian tension;  Ankara still denies Kurdish language;  Groundless arrests in the East;  A 17-year old prisoner;  First women's congress in Turkey;  Drastic increase of prostitution.

        July/Aug. 1989 - No 153-154

    Hypocrisy on the Turkish immigrants from Bulgaria!;  Death of hunger strikers in prison; Seven death sentences to Dev-Yol; Escape of two ailing prisoners; Double standard of Turkish justice; A new state security court; Human Rights activists charged; State terrorism intensified in Turkish Kurdistan; "Excrement case" to Strasbourg;  Kurdish refugees poisoned in a camp;  Other prosecutions in two months;  State terror at university campus; Intimidating inquiry at a school;  Calaylioglu still under surveillance;  Demonstration banned;  The unwritten memoirs of Kenan Evren;  Islamist mayor indicted;  Carrying firearms to be legalized;  Evren allergic to democrats;  A musical group under torture;  Pressures on intellectual life;  Blackout scandal at the Turkish TV;  Recent confiscations of publication;  Drama of Turkish immigrants from Bulgaria;  Turkey shelters 2.5 million refugees; Two Helsinki reports on Turkey;  IFJ to check on press freedom in Turkey;  Turkish Pen waits for official approval;  Minimum wage hike insufficient;  Turkish flags at half-staff for Khomeiny;  Turco-British visa quarrel;  Turkey on the ILO's black list; An unwanted US ambassador.

        September 1989 - No 156

        Özal's lies in Strasbourg;  Turkish government insists on Info-Türk editors remaining stateless;  Özal lost also his own party's support;  Restrictions on capital punishment?;  Özal's maneuvers on the constitution;  SHP in the socialist international;  Left wing's rise in the SHP;  Turkish government insists on Info-Türk editors remaining stateless;  An exiled physician arrested at his return;  New threats against political refugees;  A campaign for freeing Yilmaz Güney's films;  Extra-parliamentary left's perspectives;  Hunger-strike ended, unrest continues;  European Parliament on Turkish prisons;  Helsinki Watch's report on Turkish prisons;  Death of a former political prisoner;  Rehabilitation centers for torture victims;  People revolt against the repression in Kurdistan;  Army to climb state terrorism;  Proposal to set up a Kurdology institute;  Arrests and trials in August;  Pressure on the mas media;  Heavy fines to Turkish press;  Ankara's blow to the Bulgarian Turks;  European Parliament warns Bulgaria; Council of Europe warns Turkey as well.