A non-government information service on Turkey
Un service d'information non-gouvernemental sur la Turquie


16th Year - N°189-190
 July-August 1992
38 rue des Eburons - 1000 Bruxelles
Tél: (32-2) 215 35 76 - Fax: (32-2) 215 58 60
 Rédacteur en chef: Dogan Özgüden - Editrice responsable: Inci Tugsavul


    • A total of 1038 people lost their lives in various kinds of violence
    • Turkish security forces had killed 204 people
    • 131 people were killed by clandestine forces
    • 179 people claimed they were tortured under interrogation.
    • 9 journalists were assassinated
    • 31 journalists were beaten and harassed by the state security forces
    • 53 publications were seized upon court orders.

    In its 6-month-report ending as of June 30, the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TIHV) brought up various new allegations against the government claiming that the security forces had started to terrorize the people and that the government was not respecting human rights but had thrust the country into "a dark human rights picture.”
    According to the TIHV Report dated July 7, 1992, a total of 1038 people had lost their lives in various kinds of violence since the beginning of the year. Turkish security forces had killed 204 people  and at least 179 suspects had claimed they were tortured while under interrogation.
    More than 30 journalists were subject to harassment and attacks by security forces and a total of 53 publications including newspapers, magazines and books were seized upon court orders.
    The Foundation report claimed that various rights of individuals in Turkey, including their right to live, were being violated.
    It said that the first six months of the year "witnessed numerous practices and actions against human rights," and added that society had been terrorized while rights were violated in a way which was no better than in the past.
    "No attention was paid again to torture claims. Books, magazines and newspapers were seized. Those who spoke and wrote were silenced and sent to prisons. Extrajudicial methods, under the name of the struggle against terrorism, were put into practice and the public were informed by a single side, with the truth turned distorted," the report said.
    It also warned that tension had increased in Turkey due to the failure to find a solution to the Kurdish question, while security forces beat up demonstrators or opened fire on them.     In the said period, a total of 11 people died under detention in "suspicious circumstances," said the report, while 16 people were killed when security forces opened fire on demonstrators. 35 people were killed in raids on their houses by security forces and 51 people lost their lives in various incidents, including extrajudicial executions and opening fire without having a target
    The total death toll for such incidents was put at 102, adding to the 92 demonstrators killed by troops in southeast Turkey during the celebrations for the Kurdish new year of Newroz last March; 341 others were wounded in the Newroz incidents. Adding to the 205 people killed by security forces' gunfire, a total of 549 security officials, civilians and militants were killed in this period and 131 people were killed in "unidentified assassinations," normally meaning they were killed by clandestine forces.
    Three people were reported as missing, they disappeared without leaving any clues.
    Most of the assassinations were carried out in the troubled Southeast region, where 86 people were killed and 45 others, identified in association with the radical Islamic Hezbollah organization, were gunned down.
    In attacks on shopping centres, vehicles and similar places, a total of 44 people, including 13 children, were slain and 83 others were wounded.
    Meanwhile, attacks on security and judicial personnel also continued in an intensified manner in the said period, with 39 policemen, 21 village guards, six soldiers, four intelligence officers, two night guards, two village chiefs, two drivers, a State Security Court prosecutor and 32 other officials killed.
    In armed clashes in the Emergency Law region, said the report, a total of 287 militants from various Kurdish and Turkish left-wing organizations were killed while 224 people including security personnel and civilians also lost their lives.
    The report stressed that democratic improvements had not been efficient in the said period and that repressive measures stayed in force both against the people and the media. In 12 different incidents, a total of 31 journalists were beaten with clubs and boots and subject to insults by the state security forces.  Attacks on journalists with the use of guns, a well as bombs, also continued.
    In all of its 53 pages, the report gave examples of various forms of human rights violation witnessed in Turkey over the past six months from the killing of demonstrators to death under torture and/or attacks on crowds.
    In this period, there were seven instances in which security forces opened fire on demonstrators and nine incidents during which troops of police had raided "suspected" safe houses and killed those inside.
    There were 29 cases where people lost their lives either because they did not listen to a security forces' warning to stop, or just because someone with an official title opened fire without selecting a target. In one case, Turkish war planes bombed a village in the Emergency Law region while in another, a military helicopter machine-gunned a peasant.
    In a separate entry on torture in Turkey, the report gave specific information on a number of torture cases, including the eleven people who either died or merely "disappeared" while under custody.
    The report also said there was pressure on political parties in Turkey and cited as an example the case launched against the Peoples' Labour Party (HEP), as well as efforts by the Ankara State Security Court prosecutors' office to lift the immunity of 22 parliamentarians in a bid to put them on trial with a demand for execution. 


    One month later, in their evaluation for the Turkish Daily News of August 3, 1992, principal human rights activists of Turkey indicated that the majority of promises in the coalition protocol and the government program have not even been discussed. They say that torture continues and that violations of human rights are worse than before.
    Chairman of the Human Rights Association (IHD) Nevzat Helvaci stressed that he does not consider the government efficient, neither in its policies for democratization and openness, nor in the implementation of those policies. He added that very little improvement could be seen in the past 250 days. He complained that even arrangements which did not require a change in the law could not be carried out, and said, "For example, torture could have been prevented, but they could not do it, and torture still exists. I am gradually losing hope. If they achieve good things from now on, of course we are going to give support."
    He also said that he considers democratization necessary in every part of the country, and said the state should behave within the law and ha no right to act like a terrorist. Helvaci stressed that the government has not been effective in the fight against terrorism, and the state will of course take necessary measures against armed people. However, it should seek ways to catch them alive, he said.
    Chairman of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TIHV) Yavuz Önen indicated that not being able to put the democratization package onto the agenda had caused great dissatisfaction, and said, "The government has been too late in arrangements concerning democratization and human rights. We have even been given the impression that the public is being distracted."
    Önen, who asked the government to comply with their promises, said that from now on they want a democratic system where the civilian are the important ones. He added that human rights violations are worse than in previous periods: torture exists, there is a lack of democratic rights and liberties, the right to free assembly is limited, and the anti-terror law article which protects civil workers who commit acts of torture still applies. He also continued that the 250-day period has historical importance for Turkey. He said today, democratization promises should be kept without distracting the public. "Otherwise, the Sept. 12 (coup) might continue with all of its organizations and laws."
    Ercan Kanar, the head of the IHD's Istanbul branch, said that the government has not yet kept any of the promises which the two coalition partner parties separately made before the election and included in their coalition protocol.
    When asked to compare the present government's approach to the human rights issue with that of the former Motherland Party (ANAP), Kanar said the same negative approach continues. "What is worse is that the coalition government continues its negative approach while using words such as ‘democracy.’ With these demagogic sayings, the government is trying to pacify public opposition and reaction against the violation of human rights." While the government repeats that it wants to encourage a pluralist, participatory and reactionary public, instead the state, itself, has become reactionary, pointed out Kanar.


    Despite the government’s earlier promises to lift state of emergency, on June 26, the National Assembly decided once more to extend it for four months in 10 South-eastern provinces inhabited by Kurds.
    Angered by the style of the government’s “decision in principle” to extend the State of Emergency along with the mandate of the coalition forces based in Turkey to protect Iraqi Kurds, deputies of the main opposition Motherland Party (ANAP) and the Welfare Party (RP) walked out on the vote.
    Only 260 out of 450 deputies were present for the vote. The extension of the State of Emergency was accepted with 223 votes in favour and 37 votes against.
    The People’s Labour Party (HEP) deputies and a little part of the Social Democrat Populist Party (SHP) deputies voted against, while the majority of the SHP deputies were accepting the extension together with the Correct Way Party (DYP) and the Nationalist Labour Party (MCP) deputies.

    President Özal, on June 8, sent the law which stipulated significant changes in the Criminal Trial Procedure Code back to Parliament for reconsideration.
    The vetoed law stipulates compulsory presence of defense advocates at interrogation; testimony obtained through torture or ill treatment will not be accepted as evidence; suspects of crimes which require prison terms of less than six months shall not be detained. It also reduces the detention period to four days instead of current 15 days.
    These reforms were vetoed by Özal on the grounds that they would hinder Turkey’s war on terrorism and that certain articles in the package were against the advice of the National Security Council.
    The President’s veto shows once more that the National Security Council, composed of the army generals and some ministers, still keeps its powers and imposes anti-democratic policies to the National Assembly and the Government.


    Turkey’s Constitutional Court ordered on July 10 for the closure of the Socialist Party (SP), accusing it of acting against the integrity of the country. The verdict, which also rules for the transfer of all SP assets to the State Treasury, is seen as another major hitch in Turkey’s democratization drive as well as a message that certain power circles in this country are not prepared to accept political activities to solve the Kurdish issue.
    As the highest judicial body in Turkey, the Constitutional Court took its decision with ten votes against one.
    Chairman Dogu Perincek and members of the defunct SP executive board held a press conference in front of the Prime Ministry building on July 11 to protest at the decision. They pointed out that their struggle would continue under the roof of the newly-founded Labour Party (IP).
    Claiming that the SP had been closed because it was “a party which expressed the Kurdish reality” in Turkey, Perincek branded the Court verdict as “a bombardment of the tie of affection between the Turkish and Kurdish people.”
    Before the decision on the SP, the weekly 2000e Dogru had claimed the party was to be closed on orders from the military, charging the court members with cooperation with Turkey’s commanders.
    The magazine also published past letters sent by Court Chairman Yekta Güngör Özden to leading officials of the military regime after 1980, expressing his “thankfulness and appreciation” of their conduct after the September 12 coup.
    In another move contrary to the freedom of association, the Chief Prosecutor of the Turkish Court of Cassation has recently asked the Constitutional Court to close down the People’s Labour Party (HEP) on similar grounds.
    Observers say the Constitutional Court is expected to take a similar decision with regard to HEP in the coming weeks. The HEP program and activities are known to be more radical than those of the SP on the Kurdish issue.
    Earlier, the Constitution Court had closed down another left-wing party: the United Communist Party of Turkey (TBKP).


    The number of journalists who have been shot this year rose to nine with five new murders committed in last two months. All but two of these journalists wrote for left-wing or pro-Kurdish periodicals that cover the on-going guerrilla warfare in southeast Turkey between the PKK and security forces. Four of the assassinated reporters wrote for Özgür Gündem, a daily newspaper that began publication on May 30, 1992.
    These murders suggest an on-going campaign to silence the dissident press in the southeast.
    Despite government assurances that the murderers will be caught, they are still at large. Moreover, as declared by Helsinki Watch, there is little evidence that serious investigations are taking place. The government's attitude was revealed in a comment by Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel, who declared on August 11, "Those killed were not real journalists. They were militants in the guise of journalists. They kill each other."
    After the most recent murder of journalist, that of Hüseyin Deniz on August 10, Turkey's Press Council Chairman Oktay Eksi, in a telegram sent to Prime Minister Demirel, criticized the government of having failed to fulfil its promises of peace and stability for Turkey and pointed out that in no era of Turkish history had so many attacks been carried out against journalists.
    Journalists killed in the coalition government period and the dates of their murders are:
    HALIT GÜNGEN, 22, a reporter for the left-wing weekly 2000e Dogru, who was killed in the Diyarbakir office of this magazine at 8 p.m. on February 18, 1992. Just before the assassination, Güngen had written to the February 16 issue of the magazine a cover story on the relationship between the Hezbollah (Party of God), an Islamic terrorist group, and the Counter-Guerrilla Organisation.
    CENGIZ ALTUN, 24, the Batman correspondent for the weekly Yeni Ülke, was killed by six bullets fired into his back on February 24 as he was on his way to work. A Yeni Ülke editor alleged that Altun had recently been threatened with death at Gercus Gendarmerie Station. Altun had written articles about the alleged activities of Counter-Guerrilla; the most recent had been published in the February 2-8 issue.
    IZZET KEZER, a journalist for the daily Sabah, was shot and killed by security forces in Cizre on March 23, during the violence that followed the celebration of the Kurdish New Year, Newroz. During a state-imposed curfew, Kezer and other journalists emerged from their hotel waving white flags: No shooting was going on at the time. Kezer, at the head of the group, reached an intersection and was shot dead by security forces who fired from an armored personnel carrier.
    BÜLENT ÜLKÜ, correspondent of a local daily in Bursa, was killed on April 1.
    MACIT AKGÜN, a reporter for Yeni Ülke, was found hanging from a telephone pole near Cölova village in Nusaybin on June 2. Akgün had been missing for three weeks, having last been seen in Nusaybin. According to the Anatolia News Agency, an autopsy showed that Akgün had been strangled ten days earlier. A statement found on his body saying that "he was punished because he was a traitor" was allegedly signed by the PKK.
    HAFIZ AKDEMIR, a reporter in the Diyarbakir office of the daily Özgür Gündem, was killed by a single bullet shot into the back of his head on June 8. The murder was committed at 8 a.m., fifty meters from his home in Diyarbakir. Özgür Gündem reporters stated that they had received telephoned threats for several days. Akdemir had recently interviewed human rights delegations visiting the region and had written about them, as well as about the workings of the counter-guerrilla forces in the region.
    CETIN ABABAY, the Batman correspondent for the journal Özgür Halk, was shot in the head at 7.30 p.m. on July 29 by three unidentified men while on his way home; he died in Diyarbakir University Hospital on July 30.
    YAHYA ORHAN, 30, the Gercüs (Batman Province) correspondent for Özgür Gündem, was shot dead by unknown assailants on July 31 at about 10.30 p.m. Özgür Gündem reported that Orhan had been stopped on the street and threatened. According to his family, Orhan received a phone call at his home on July 31 in which he was told, "We have removed all journalists. Now it is your turn." Sounds of gunshots were then heard on the telephone.
    HÜSEYIN DENIZ, 36, the Ceylanpinar (Urfa Province) correspondent for Özgür Gündem, was critically wounded by one bullet fired into his neck while on his way to work on August 9. he died on August 10. Deniz was also the regional correspondent for the daily Cumhuriyet.
    BURHAN KARADENIZ, 19, a Diyarbakir correspondent for Özgür Gündem, was critically wounded by a bullet in his neck fired by unknown persons on August 5 in Diyarbakir; he was paralysed below the waist. Karadeniz had been detained by police for five days following the visit of several HEP deputies to Diyarbakir on July 10 on the anniversary of the death of Vedat Aydin, a human rights activist and HEP member.
    There is general belief that secret state forces are behind the murders and local officials prefer to turn a blind eye to them because they always target controversial newsmen. Most of the killings take place in a very professional way. The victim is followed and shot with a single bullet or with bullets fired from a single gun. The assassins literally walk away.
    Helsinki Watch, in its press release of August 1992, said: "HW is deeply disturbed by what appears to be a systematic campaign to silence the press about events in southeast Turkey. We urge the government to take immediate steps to investigate these killings and to prosecute those responsible."
    The International Federation of Journalists condemned, on September 9, the failure of the Turkish Government to carry out proper investigations into the killing of journalists.
    In a coordinated day of international action, which saw journalists from Argentina to Denmark, taking their protests to Turkish Embassies, the IFJ General Secretary Aidan White met with the Turkish Ambassador to Belgium, Yildirim Keskin, and submitted a dossier of cases for action by the Turkish authorities.
    "Turkey claims to be democratic and have freedom of the press, but the world of journalism is not convinced," said Mr. White. "The Government must examine every attack against the media and every act of violence against journalists and publish its reports.
    A majority of the IFJ's 81 national unions in 64 countries also joined protests, both nationally and regionally.
    In France, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) condemned Turkey on July 20 for violations of press freedom, including the death of journalists in strange circumstances, imprisonment of reporters and censorship.
    RSF said the reported repression contradicted promises by Prime Minister Demirel for a new press law guaranteeing freedoms and urged European Community members to bear it in mind when considering Turkey's application to join the community.
    According to the RSF, 10 journalists were in jail for example for "having  photographed an unauthorized demonstration or insulted the president in a satirical magazine." So far this year, authorities seized 21 issued of about 12 newspapers and magazines, the RFS said.

    By the side of the assassination of journalists, a number of human rights activists too have been victims of violence carried out by the security forces and subversive pro-government organizations.
    Human rights activist Siddik Tan was killed on June 20 in a house in Batman in southeast Turkey. According to reports received from reliable sources, the murder was carried out by three unidentified armed attackers. Mr. Tan was an active board member of the Batman branch of the Human Rights Association  of Turkey (IHD).
    Tan had been injured in an earlier attack on July 2, 1991, by a bomb that had been placed in his car. Tan's 10-year-old son and a friend were also injured by the car bomb; the car was demolished.

Helsinki Watch urges the government

    On the killing of Tan, Helsinki Watch urged the Turkish Government to investigate promptly and thoroughly Mr. Tan’s death; to end its raids on the offices of the Human Rights Association(IHD); to prevent the detention, torture and trials of IHD members; and to investigate the death threats lodged against IHD officers and members. Helsinki Watch also urged the government to bring to justice the killers of human rights activist Vedat Aydin, murdered in Diyarbakir in July 1991.
    Helsinki Watch, in a press release of July 1992, reports the following cases as regards human rights activists:
    “The July 1991 car bombing of Siddik Tan was one of four attacks on the IHD that took place during a short period of time in 1991 . On June 18, 1991, an explosive device destroyed the car of lawyer and IHD member Mustafa Ozer. On June 25, 1991, the Diyarbakir office of the IHD was bombed, causing extensive damage.
    The most serious attack during June and July of 1991 was the murder of Vedat Aydin, 39, one of the founders of the Diyarbakir branch of the IHD. On July 5, 1991, Mr. Aydin was taken from his home by several armed men who identified themselves as police officers. His body was found outside Diyarbakir on July 8; his skull had been fractured, both legs were broken, and his body contained 15 or 16 bullet wounds. To date, no one has been charged with Mr. Aydin's murder or with the other acts of violence directed against IHD members.

Death Threats

    In early May, a leaflet containing death threats against 28 people was widely circulated in southeast Turkey. All 28 are Kurds; all are either members of Parliament or have spoken out on behalf of Kurds in Turkey; some have investigated human rights violations against Kurds. Four are members of the Human Rights Association:
    Yavuz Binbay, president, Van IHD,
    Sekvan Aytug, president, Sirnak IHD,
    Faik Tunefan, member, Istanbul IHD, and
    Ömer Hazar, member, Istanbul IHD.

    The leaflet was signed by Islami Cihad-B - Islami Yumruk (Islamic Holy War-B -Fist of Islam. According to Amnesty International, it is widely believed that Turkish security forces were responsible.
    Ercan Kanar, the president of the IHD Istanbul Branch, had reported earlier that the association's leaders were receiving death threats (Cumhuriyet, February 14, 1992). In May 1992 the IHD Head Office reported that its branches had been subjected to such threats (Cumhuriyet, May 14, 1992).

Arrest and Torture

    Sekvan Aytug, the president of the Sirnak IHD, was detained in Sirnak on his return from a trip to Ankara on May 14, 1992. Police did not disclose the reason for Aytug's detention, but he had recently provided information to human rights delegations and the press about human rights abuses that took place in Sirnak during Newroz, the Kurdish New Year, in March 1992. His name was one of those appearing on the list of 28 people threatened with death, above. On May 29. Aytug was formally arrested. Sirnak IHD members who visited. Aytug in prison reported: "During our visit we noticed bruises and wounds on his left eyebrow, feet and knees. Both his statements and what we observed indicated that Mr. Aytug had been tortured in detention."

Raids on IHD Offices

    The Istanbul IHD branch was raided by police on March 21, 1992; police seized documents and announcements. The same branch was raided again on April 24; membership lists and other documents were confiscated.
    On May 14, the head office of the Human Rights Association announced that its branches had been subjected to raids, searches and closings in recent weeks (Cumhuriyet, May 14). In late May, the IHD Bursa branch was raided by police.

Trials of IHD officials

    On February 4, 1992, a trial began at Istanbul State Security Court against Esber Yagmurdereli, Ragip Duran and Atilla Aycin because of speeches they had made at a September 18, 1991, meeting arranged by the Istanbul branch of the IHD. The defendants are charged under Article 8 of the Anti-Terror Law with "making separatist propaganda." Each faces a possible two- to five-year prison sentence.
    On November 29, 1991, six leaders of the Istanbul branch of the IHD went on trial at the Istanbul State Security Court, charged with organizing a solidarity evening for Iraqi Kurds. The prosecutor asked that the association be closed, as well as that its leaders be given prison sentences.

Free Expression Denied

    On March 21, 1992, members of the Ankara branch of the IHD were prevented by police from placing a wreath on behalf of Newroz in Ankara Yuksel Street. Police destroyed the wreath, beat IHD board member Alpaslan Erturk and detained IHD member Yildiz Sik
    (For the further cases of violence concerning human rights activists, see State-Terror in June-July)


    A detailed report by the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TIHV) on the bloodshed during celebrations for the Kurdish new year of Newroz in March 1992, claimed this week that security forces had opened fire on demonstrators first - leading to the deaths of a total 92 people.
    The report recalled that a statement made by President Turgut Özal on January 31, promising a massive operation in southeast Turkey, had served to escalate tension in the region, although Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel announced in a statement on March 9 that Newroz would be celebrated freely.
    Against all official promises, said the report, the Emergency Law governors office issued a series of bans prior to the Newroz celebrations and sent these in the form of decrees to other governorates. "In a decree," the report said, "transportation between villages after 5:00 p.m., working in the mountains or fields and taking animals out were banned." As part of the extraordinary measures to prevent Newroz, even the sick were required to obtain documents and special permission from the gendarmerie forces in order to travel to hospitals.
    Although Demirel made a last minute statement before March 21 saying that anyone could gather and celebrate the Newroz occasion on condition that violence was not used, the report stated that security forces opened fire on civilian demonstrators at the beginning of the celebrations -- sparking off further clashes. According to the foundation, the first incident occurred in the Gercus township of Batman, where security forces opened fire on a group of about 250 people who lit a bonfire as part of the traditional Newroz celebrations on March 20. Two people aged 20 and 16 were killed in this incident while eight others were wounded.
    In Sirnak, where a total of 38 people died and 120 were wounded on March 21, security forces opened fire on a group of civilians who refused to be frisked by police while marching to the Republic Square. As clashes continued, the outlawed Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) also became involved and by the evening of the same day, a curfew was declared in the province. However, clashes continued on March 22 and 23, with the PKK staging attacks on military barracks and official buildings.
     The report claimed that amid this turmoil, security forces opened fire on many houses believed to be occupied by PKK militants and that in reaction to the developments, a group Iynched police officer Osman Catana in his house.
    Of the people identified as terrorist casualties after the incidents, six were between the ages of 30 and 40 and four were between the ages of 45 and 70. Identifying the victims by name, the report said a five-year-old girl and nine-year-old boy were also among the casualties. Most of the other victims were under 18. In nearby Cizre, where thousands gathered together to celebrate Newroz, security forces opened fire on demonstrators. The attack was accompanied by military marches played on police loudspeakers.
    "Tension escalated when many people were shot and fell to the ground," said the report, adding that reporter Izzet Kezer of the daily Sabah was also killed by bullets fired from an armored police vehicle although he was carrying a white flag. During clashes in Cizre between March 21 and 25, the report said a total of 24 people had died and 60 others were wounded. The Human Rights report indicated that violence was recorded only in areas where security forces had intervened in demonstrations, and cited the province of Van and Adana as examples.
    In Van, clashes erupted after an intervention which led to the declaration of a curfew. Once the curfew was declared, the report claimed, "security forces terrorized the city" and raided the Human Rights Foundation Van branch as well as the Peoples' Labor Party's (HEP) provincial bureau. Much damage was recorded in the raids, it added. Although demonstrations in the Narlica and Daglioglu districts of Adana passed with only small incidents, the report said security forces opened fire on demonstrators during the night, leading to a clash. A 20-year-old demonstrator was killed while eight people including a child and a policeman were wounded. Thirty-year-old Necmettin Ekici was killed in a similar incident at a different part of the city in which six more people were wounded.
    In Nusaybin, where paramilitary village guards allegedly opened fire on villagers marching to the city center on Newroz day, one person was killed and two others were wounded, although no further violence was recorded. On March 22, however, police opened fire when some 8,000 people marched toward the city center the report claimed.
    A total of 19 people were killed and 52 others were wounded in the following clashes.
    In Hakkari's township of Yuksekova, similar incidents were recorded, with an initial attack on demonstrators by special teams at the cemetery, followed by gunfire being opened on demonstrators in the town. A 14-year-old child was killed and six others were wounded in the incident. In the morning, security forces opened fire on a group of 3,000 people who were gathered in front of the governate building, the report said. In all, five people died and 38 others were wounded in four days of violence.
    The report said that although officials claimed clashes had occurred between the PKK and security forces, resulting in these casualties, only two policemen were killed in the region during this wave of violence, which raises serious questions on the legitimacy of the official argument.
    It also added that had the PKK truly been involved in that sense,  the casualty toll should have been higher.  


    2.6, in Ankara, about 50 health personnel placed a black wreath in front of the Interior Ministry for protesting against the torture applied to 3-month pregnant nurse Nazli Top at the Istanbul Political Police Centre between April 27 and May 7. Police immediately intervened in the demonstration and detained eight people.
    2.6, in the province of Rize, security forces arrested thirteen people.
    2.6, in the town of Salihli (Manisa province), local HEP Chairman Ali Kacan was detained by police.
    2.6, the Diyarbakir SSC sentenced an alleged PKK militant to 22 years and six months and another to three years and nine months.
    4.6, in Elazig, security forces raided a number of houses. During the operation three persons were shot dead and 25 people detained..
    4.6, in the town of Kiziltepe (Mardin province), a teacher named Seydos Aydogan was assassinated by the Hezbollah.
    4.6, in the town of Kulp (Diyarbakir province), during the funeral of a PKK militant, security forces opening fire on the crowd wounded five persons.
    5.6, a meeting organized by the Greens Party on the occasion of the World Environment Day was not allowed by the governor of Izmir.
    5.6, in Kiziltepe, during the funeral of Seydos Aydogan, security forces opening fire on the crowd killed one person, wounded three and arrested 20 people.
    5.6, the Hezbollah, stopping a minibus on the road Midyat-Dargecit (Mardin province), assassinated Fevzi Anik and Ahmet Yesilmen.
    7.6, in the district of Bismil (Diyarbakir province), university student Aziz Biber was stabbed dead by the Hezbollah and his body was left to the cemetery.
    7.6, the Penal Court N°18 of Ankara sentenced 17 university students to prison terms of up to six years for an unauthorized demonstration they held in December 1989 at the Education Faculty of the Gazi University in Ankara.
    10.6, a meeting on the trade union rights of public servants was banned by the governor of Istanbul.
    10.6, in the district of Tatvan (Bitlis province), a minibus was stopped and 13 voyagers inside were shot dead by unidentified gunmen.
    10.6, the Governor of Hakkari refused to authorize the opening of the local section of the Education and Science Workers" Trade Union (EGIT-SEN) in the province.
    11.6, in the district of Silvan (Diyarbakir province), Doctor Mehmet Emin Ayhan was assassinated by the Hezbollah.
    11.6, security forces arrested seven people in the district of Mutki (Bitlis province).
    13.6, in Izmir, HEP local chairman Abdurrahman Dayan and 96 other persons were detained for having chanted Kurdish songs during a wedding ceremony.
    13.6, in the district of Kiziltepe (Mardin province), 26 year blacksmith Seymuz Ibrahimoglu and his brother, Hasan Ibrahimoglu, were assassinated by unidentified gunmen.
    14.6, in Mardin, local HEP Chairman Veysi Parilti and another party official, Hasan Güler, were taken into custody.
    16.6, during their trial at the Izmir SSC, five high-school students accused of belonging to an underground organization were beaten at the court-room for having shouted political slogans.
    16.6, IHD Antalya Chairman Mustafa Sahin said that in last 20 days three persons had been subjected to torture. A 15-year old boy too was tortured at the Sea-Port Police Station on June 8.
    16.6, in Gaziantep, five people announced at a press conference held at the local IHD Office that they had been subjected to torture by the Political Police  during their detention between May 18 and 27.
    16.6, in Izmir, the governor did not allow a meeting on the question of the unity of socialists.
    16.6, in Izmir, three persons were indicted by virtue of Article 146 of the TPC for having attacked a police car. Each faces capital punishment.
    16.6, in Malatya, the Association of Folk Education (MFED) was closed down by the order of the governor.
    16.6, security forces detained five villagers in the district of Cinar (Diyarbakir province) and five in the district of Ergani.
    17.6, seven people were sentenced by the Malatya SSC to prison terms of up to 3 years and 9 months for aiding PKK.
    17.6, the Human Rights Foundation (TIHV) reports that a political detainee, Hasan Güldal might be killed under torture at the Artvin Gendarmerie Station. According to eye-witnesses, Güldal had been arrested on May 23 and subjected to torture. His whereabouts are unknown since May 28.
    18.6, security forces detained 21 villagers in the districts of Nusaybin and Mazidag (Mardin province).
    19.6, in the town of Silvan (Diyarbakir province), security forces raiding a house shot dead four people and wounded three. Among the victims is also a HEP official, Felemez Günes.
    19.6, two children, one 14 and other 17 years old, accused of having participated in PKK actions were sentenced by the Diyarbakir SSC to heavy prison terms. They were first sentenced to capital punishment by virtue of Article 125 of the TPC, but the sentence was later commuted to 12 years and 6 months in prison for the younger and 16 years and 8 months for the other.
    20.6, in Batman, IHD official Siddik Tan was shot dead during a raid on a house. He had already been wounded last year, on July 2, at a bomb explosion.
    20.6, in Istanbul, the slums of Kücükarmutlu were raided by more than 2.000 policemen and all houses searched one by one. 31 people were reportedly detained.
    21.6, the trial of 21 students having taken part in a left-right quarrel at the Uludag University three months ago began at the Criminal Court N°3 of Bursa. The prosecutor demands prison terms of not less than three years for each.
    22.6, in Batman and Nusaybin, three persons were shot dead by unidentified gunmen.
    22.6, thousands of public servants carrying out a protest march since Istanbul were stopped by police at the entrance of Ankara. During the police intervention, hundreds of demonstrators were brutally beaten and 30 people detained.
    23.6, in Adana, thirteen alleged TIKKO (Workers'-Peasants' Liberation Army of Turkey) militants were detained.
    23.6, in Gaziantep, eight people were arrested for having shouted some slogans during a soirée for Turkish-Kurdish solidarity.
    24.6, a 22-year old pregnant woman, Menice Kirtay was subjected to torture and sexual harassment at the Silvan Police Station. She had been detained after a police raid on June 19 during which his husband Ali Kirtay was shot dead. She lost her baby because of introducing club into her vagina.
    26.6, in Ankara, political police detained nine alleged PKK militants.
    26.6, in the district of Idil (Sirnak province), village protectors shot dead two municipal workers.
    26.6, the congress of the Railway Workers' Union was banned by the Ankara Governor on grounds that public servants have no right to union.
    26.6, the Malatya SSC sentenced six alleged PKK militants to prison terms of up to 12 years and 6 months.
    27.6, in Bitlis, nine people were placed under arrest by a tribunal for participating in PKK activities.
    27.6, in Diyarbakir, Abdullah Aksoy was shot dead by the Hezbollah.
    27.6, in Gaziantep, twelve persons were detained for having chanted Kurdish songs during a wedding ceremony.
    29.6, the trial of 34 people, accused of unauthorized May Day celebrations, began at the Izmir SSC. Each faces a prison term of up to 5 years.
    30.6, in Silvan, three persons, Halim Yasar, his son Adil Yasar and his brother Nazim Yazar were shot dead by the Hezbollah.
    30.6, in the town of Nusaybin (Mardin province), more than 3 thousand people held a demonstration in protest against police operations and arrests in the region. Security forces supported by tanks and panzers arrested more than 200 demonstrators.
    1.7, in the district of Silvan (Diyarbakir province), two persons named Mehmet Bugdayci and Recep Alparslan were reportedly tortured to death by the Hezbollah.
    2.7, in Cizre, a 3-day police operation resulted in the arrest of more than 100 people.
    2.7, in Van, security forces arrested six people.
    2.7, the Izmir SSC sentenced three alleged PKK militants to 12 years and 6 months in prison each.
    2.7, the trial of 17 left-wing university students, arrested after a conflict with right-wing students in Bursa, began at the Istanbul SSC.
    2.7, the trial of six alleged Dev-Sol (Revolutionary Left) members began at the Istanbul SSC. Each faces imprisonment of up to 22 years and 6 months. The defendants declared that their deposition had been obtained under torture and presented medical reports certifying traces of torture.
    3.7, in Urfa, 38-year old Ramazan Sat was shot dead by the Hezbollah.
    5.7, the Izmir SSC banned the distribution of a tract entitled "End to the State Terrorism and Special War", prepared by the HEP. Besides, the HEP officials were indicted for this tract by virtue of the Anti-Terror Law.
    7.7, a political refugee, Ali Ekber Basaran, was detained at the Ankara airport when he returned from France after a long self-exile.
    8.7, in the district of Bismil (Diyarbakir province), 15 villagers were detained by security forces. Two of the detainees are 12 years old.
    8.7, the trial of the leaders of TURK-IS (Turkish Trade Unions Confederation) began at the Penal Court N°15 of Ankara for inciting workers to strike. Each faces a prison term of up to three months.
    9.7, in Izmir, lawyer Kemal Kirlangic reported that his client Rahmi Akbulak as well as his two children, Sahbender and Muzaffer Akbulak had been tortured on July 4 after a dispute with police officers.
    9.7, in Izmir, police announced the arrest of 50 alleged PKK militants.
    11.7, in Ankara, police raiding a house shot dead two persons. Police authorities claimed that the victims had committed suicide.
    12.7, in Istanbul, Ortaköy Cultural Centre was raided police without a court warrant and detained 20 people inside.
    12.7, three people were shot dead by unidentified gunmen as they were going in a car from Sirnak to Uludere.
    13.7, in Ankara,  a series of anti-PKK operations resulted in the arrest of 30 people.
    13.7, in Istanbul, police raiding a house shot dead two persons.
    14.7, in Istanbul, a coffee-house keeper, Numan Akcal alleged that he had been tortured at police station.
    15.7, the Malatya SSC sentenced three TDKP (Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey) members to 15 years in prison each.
    16.7, in Bursa, a forwarding agent, Muammer Evren claimed that he as well as his wife and boy had been subjected to torture at police center when they went there for lodging a complaint about a theft.
    16.7, in Istanbul, ten people were detained by police during the funeral of Nurten Demir, shot dead by police on July 13.
    17.7, in Istanbul, HEP official Cihan Sahkat was detained by police raiding his home.
    17.7, in Istanbul, police dispersed a workers' demonstration by using force and wounded eight people.
    17.7, in the town of Viransehir (Urfa province), a police operation resulted in the arrest of five people, including local HEP Chairman Cecen Topcu.
    17.7, HD announced that 50 people detained at the Political Police Centre of Izmir had been subjected to torture.
    18.7, in Batman, a street vendor, Mustafa Saltikap, was shot dead by unidentified people.
    19.7, in Adana, 12 alleged PKK members were detained by political police.
    19.7, in Batman, an anti-PKK operation resulted in the arrest of 20 people.
    19.7, in Istanbul, during a police raid on a house, three persons were shot dead on the spot. Another person escaping from the raid was killed in another house. Police charged them with being involved in TIKKO  actions. The Association for Freedoms and Rights (Özgür-Der) accused the police of executing innocent people with trial.
    19.7, in Istanbul, ten people were detained when they were commemorating a victim of police terror.
    19.7, in the district of Dogubeyazit (Agri province), security forces detained more than 50 people during a 3-day anti-PKK operation.
    19.7, in the town of Nusaybin (Mardin province), a 35-year old shopkeeper, Mehmet Dagdelen, was shot dead by unidentified people.
    20.7, in Istanbul, a street vendor named Abdulbaki Kara alleged that he was subjected to torture during his 3-day police detention between 11-14 July.
    20.7, in Tatvan, the headman of the Düzcealan Village and nine other villagers were detained during a police raid.  One of the detainees, Hayat Oral is 16 years old.
    22.7, nine of 12 alleged PKK members detained by police in Adana in last week were placed under arrest by a tribunal.
    23.7, a 55-year old person, Nurettin Aslan was reportedly killed by police during his interrogation in Istanbul. The police authorities claimed that Aslan had thrown himself from the 8th floor of the building.
    23.7, in Aydin, local HEP chairman Lezgin Culduz and three other party members were detained by police.
    23.7, security forces carried out a series of arrests in Adana.
    24.7, in Batman, Seyfettin Özdemir was shot dead by the Hezbollah.
    24.7, in Diyarbakir, Seyhmuz Güneyli and Salih Güneyli were shot dead by unidentified persons.
    24.7, in the town of Ceylanpinar (Urfa province), 15 tradesmen were detained for having shut their shops in a protest action.
    25.7, in the town of Kiziltepe (Mardin province), a dentist of Assyrian origin, Yakup Yöndem was shot dead by the Hezbollah.
    26.7, in Batman, three persons, Cevdet Tasan, Mim Nesim Orman and Masum Erol were shot dead by unidentified people.
    26.7, in the town of Uludere (Hakkari province), twelve people were detained by police.
    27.7, a group of public servants were attacked by police teams as they were carrying out a demonstration before the Health Ministry in protest against insufficient wage hikes. Seven of the demonstrators were seriously wounded.
    27.7, a 26-year old Kurdish woman detained during an anti-PKK operation in Izmir said that she had been beaten by police agents in front of her children and later subjected to torture at the police station.
    28.7, in Antalya, police teams raided the Habibler and Sinan quarters inhabited by Kurds and detained nine people.
    28.7, two members of the Human Rights' Committee of the National Assembly, Urfa deputy  Halil Ibrahim Celik and Istanbul deputy Halit Dumankaya, were not allowed to visit the Ankara Political Police Headquarters and to see the detention conditions there.
    28.7, unidentified gunmen stopped a bus in Hakkari and shot dead a 8-month pregnant woman, Naciye Özer, and a 2-year old girl, Nurcan Özatak.
    29.7, in the town of Nusaybin (Mardin province), a printer named Eyüp Aktas was shot dead by unidentified people.
    30.7, in Nusaybin, Bedirhan Günes who was shot by Hezbollah militants died in a hospital.


    2.6, the administration of the Ankara Central Prison banned detainees to read a series of publications such as Yeni Ülke, Yeni Demokrasi, Halk Demokrasisi, Kristal-Is Bulteni, Wellat, Secme Yazilar, Mücadele, Ekimler, Cagdas Hukuk Bülteni.
    3.6, the editor of the political magazine Ak-Dogus, Sinami Orhan was detained for serving his 18-month imprisonment to which he had been sentenced for insulting Atatürk in an article.
    9.6, a prison term of one year and four months against cartoonist Ismail Pehlivan, editor of the weekly Girgir, was approved by the Court of Cassation. He had been sentenced by a penal court in Istanbul in virtue of Article 158 of the TPC for having insulted President Özal in a cartoon.
    9.6, the issue N° 34 of the weekly Yeni Ülke was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    16.6, the issue N° 35 of the weekly Yeni Ülke was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for having criticized the Prosecutor of the Ankara SSC.
    16.6, the issue N° 18 of the monthly Komün was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC.
    17.6, publisher Hikmet Kocak was sentenced by the Ankara SSC to a fine of TL150 Millions ($20.000) for having published Edit Polat's book entitled We Turned Twilights into Newroz [Kurdish New Year] by virtue of Anti-Terror Law. The said book had already been confiscated.
    17.6, journalist Adnan Gerger was indicted by virtue of Anti-Terror Law for his book entitled To Whom Belong The Back of Mountains? He will be tried by the Ankara SSC.
    18.6, former HEP Aydin Chairman Lezgin Culduz and Ismet Dag were sentenced by the Izmir SSC to prison terms of 20 months and fines of TL41.6 Million ($6.000) each for having published a calendar "containing separatist propaganda."
    19.6, the Nusaybin correspondent of the daily Özgür Gündem, Vahap Aslan was detained by a police team raiding his house.
    24.6, a book entitled My Life in Brief, written 70 years ago by Ekrem Cemil Pasa, was confiscated in Ankara for some paragraphs criticizing Atatürk.
    24.6, two correspondents of the daily Özgür Gündem, Mehmet Senol and Rauf Yildiz were detained in Diyarbakir.
    28.6, the Nusaybin correspondent of the daily Özgür Gündem, Vahap Aslan alleged that he was subjected to torture during his one-week police detention.
    29.6, the latest issue of the weekly Azadi was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    1.7, the issue N° 37 of the weekly Yeni Ülke was confiscated for separatist propaganda.
    3.7, a collection of poems edited by Cemsid Mar, Contemporary Kurdish Legends, was confiscated by the Ankara SSC in virtue of the ATL. The publisher of the book, Mehmet Bayrak was sentenced to a fine of TL100 Million ($13.500).
    3.7, journalist Kadir Misirlioglu was put in prison for serving a 20-month prison term to which he had been sentenced for an article he wrote in 1977.
    9.7, the Ankara SSC confiscated Dr. Ismail Besikci's book entitled The Law of Tunceli- 1935 and the Dersim Genocide for separatist propaganda. The book had already been confiscated two years ago by virtue of Article 142 of the Turkish Penal Code. But this decision had been lifted after the abrogation of the said article.
    12.7, the governor of Istanbul banned the posters prepared by the Socialist Union Party (SBP), claiming a peaceful solution to the Cyprus question.
    12.7, political review Emegin Bayragi was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC by virtue of Anti-Terror Law.
    12.7, the new issue of the weekly Mücadele was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC on charges of praising an outlawed organization.
    13.7, in Ankara,  journalist Medeni Ayhan, representative of the review Özgür Halk, was arrested together with 29 other people during anti-PKK operations.
    13.7, in Istanbul, police stopping a car belonging to the daily Özgür Gündem beat journalists  Gökhan Kürüm and Cafer Yildiz and destroyed all the newspapers in it.
    18.7, a concert of the Group Kizilirmak in Antakya was forbidden by the Governor of Hatay.
    19.7, the issue N° 39 of the weekly Yeni Ülke was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for containing a report of the International of Christian Democrats on the Kurdish Question.
    21.7, a correspondent of the daily Özgür Gündem, Ali Dogan was detained by police in Tunceli.
    22.7, in Istanbul, two correspondents of the weekly Gercek, Ilkay Demir and Metin Göktepe were detained and beaten by police as covering a protest action of municipal workers.
    23.7, in the town of Ergani (Diyarbakir province), the Arkadas Bookshop was raided by a special police team and shop-keeper Ümit Öztürk was beaten and wounded on the face.
    25.7, two correspondents of the daily Özgür Gündem, Bahatin Özen and Ayten Aydin were detained by police as they were covering the visit of HEP deputies in Mardin.
    26.7, a book entitled Our Flag Is To Wave Throughout the Country, published by the Haziran Publishing House was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for propaganda of an outlawed organization.
    26.7, a poster on Kurds, prepared by the Socialist Union Party (SBP) was banned by the Governor of Izmir. Besides, the Izmir SSC decreed to confiscate the poster.
    27.7, police authorities refused to deliver a passport to Yasar Kaya, publisher of the daily Özgür Gündem.
    27.7, two correspondents of the daily Özgür Gündem, Abdullah Arisoy and Ali Komak, said that during their 15-day police detention in Cizre between  1-16 July they had been subjected to torture at police station. Although released, a tribunal has recently issued an arrest warrant for both of them.
    28.7, the issue N°4 of the monthly Mücadele was confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for having containing articles in favour of Dev-Sol.
    28.7, Ankara representative of the monthly Özgür Halk, Medeni Ayhan said after his release that he was subjected to ill-treatment during his 15-day police detention and witnessed to torture applied to three other detainees.
    30.7, local HEP chairman in the province of Aydin, Lezgin Culduz was arrested by the Izmir SSC for supporting the PKK.
    30.7, a book entitled My Memoirs Concerning the Kurdish National Struggle in Dersim, edited by journalist Mehmet Bayrak on the memoirs of Nuri Dersimli, was confiscated by the Ankara SSC for separatist propaganda. Besides, a legal proceeding was started against Mehmet Bayrak.
    30.7, a book entitled The Question of Woman and Family, containing articles of PKK leader Öcalan, was confiscated by virtue of the ATL.
    31.7, the publisher and chief editor of the weekly Mezopotamya in the district of Kiziltepe (Mardin province), Cemil Aydogan, was tried at the Diyarbakir SSC for separatist propaganda. The prosecutor demanded 5-year imprisonment and a fine of TL 50 Million ($7.000) by virtue of the Anti Terror Law.
    31.7, the prosecutor opened a legal proceeding at the Istanbul SSC against publisher Yasar Kaya and responsible editor Selcuk Gür of the daily Özgür Gündem for having published and interview with the PKK leader Öcalan.