A non-government information service on Turkey
Un service d'information non-gouvernemental sur la Turquie


18th Year - N°211
May 1994
38 rue des Eburons - 1000 Bruxelles
Tél: (32-2) 215 35 76 - Fax: (32-2) 215 58 60
 Rédacteur en chef: Dogan Özgüden - Editrice responsable: Inci Tugsavul


    Thousands of Turks of Turkey and their terrified children have poured into northern Iraq to escape fighting between the Turkish Army and Kurdish forces, a senior UN. Official said on May 10,  1994. "We have recently identified 3,600 newly arriving Kurds but Iraqi Kurdish authorities say they number more than 6,000," Abdullah Saied of the UN. Higher Commission for Refugees told Reuters.
    "The refugees, mostly women and children, were stranded close to the northern Iraqi Kurdish city of Zakho with their cattle and sheep. They are terrified. Some of the refugees refuse to identify themselves as Turkish Kurds because they fear reprisal from both Iraqi Kurds and Turkish troops. Their children run away whenever they see a plane, any plane, in the sky. I fear that the ongoing fighting in Southeast Turkey would force more Kurds to seek refuge in northern Iraq," he said.
    Meanwhile some Kurdish sources in Turkey say that the exodus into northern Iraq is much greater than the figures quoted and indicate that up to 30,000 people may be involved.
    The Turkish Government immediately asserted that the mass migration of villagers to northern Iraq is a ploy by the PKK aimed at embarrassing Turkey in the West.
    However, DEP Sirnak deputy Selim Sakik said at the Parliament that he had personally talked to people leaving for Northern Iraq and concluded that they were being forced out of their villages by special security forces operating in the region and by government armed village guards.
    One of those who decided to migrate to Northern Iraq, the DEP candidate for mayor of Uludere in March local elections, Abdullah Yilmaz, claimed people had decided to flee from his region because of pressure from the government appointed local prefect and from the regional security chief. "The state is pressurising us in every way possible. The PKK is not pressurising us. We came here to get away from it all but they are still firing artillery shells on us. Planes are flying over our heads. If international organizations do not take this matter in hand many people will die," Yilmaz said.


    Chief of General Staff Gen. Dogan Güres, said on May 16 that the state had still not used many options in combating the outlawed Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).
In response, the acting DEP chairman, Remzi Kartal, claiming that general Güres' remarks were a "threat aimed at civilians," called on General Güres to "clarify" his words.
    "The public knows Gen. Güres, who is currently filling his post as Chief of the General Staff due to a questionable government decree, as someone who is pressurising the government and the president in order to stay in his job longer. He has also said on countless occasions that he is opposed to a political solution of the Kurdish problem. Now he is referring to options the state has not used to date and in this way threatening the people openly with massacres. It is clear that Gen. Güres is referring to the fact that weapons of mass destruction, which have been used from time to time, will be used with greater frequency now," Kartal said.


    The daily Günaydin released on May 3 what it claims are the secret transcripts of a three-way telephone conversation between Prime Minister Ciller and State Ministers Necmettin Cevheri and Bekir Sami Dace. In this conversation, Ciller asked her colleagues to prepare a pretext for extending the term of office of General Güres.
    Last year the government had extended Güres' term of office by a year through legal juggling despite the fact Güres should have been legally retired as chief of staff. At the time, the government used the authorisation bill to prepare the legal ground to delay the retirement of Gen. Güres. Later the bill was annulled by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional and thus legal experts argued that the extension of Gen. Güres' term of office was null and void. However, Güres has preferred to remain in office.


    As May Day was being celebrated in joy throughout the world, the demonstration organized by trade unions and democratic organizations ended once more in bloodshed. In many cities, police intervened in demonstrations and arrested some people. In Ankara, many demonstrators were brutally beaten by police.
    Among the demonstrators being target of police terror is Salman Kaya, a deputy of the coalition partner SHP.
    After the events, Deputy Prime Minister and SHP Chairman Murat Karayalcin said: "Our Ankara deputy Salman Kaya has been severely beaten. I was told by the Interior Minister at first that he had been stoned by mistake but the hospital report states that his injuries are not due to stones, but to blows. I do not regard this as just an assault on a deputy. It is of wider importance and the issue needs to be looked at from the point of view of every citizen."
    Karayalcin also underlined that in the past police had beaten up civil servants and students on different occasions while they had remained indifferent and did not intervene when Islamic protesters attacked the UN mission and US embassy in April. He accused the police of using a double standard in Ankara.
    On this criticism, Ankara police chief Orhan Tasanlar was suspended for a few days, but returned to his post a few days later by the order of the Interior Minister Nahit Mentese.


    Two pro-Kurdish newspapers, Özgür Gündem and Azadi, were closed down respectively on April 20 and May 13, 1994, after the Court of Cassation ratified the State Security Court decisions to this end.
    Özgür Gündem is a Kurdish-owned Turkish-language national newspaper with a circulation of some 30,000. Originally set up in 1992, its headquarters are in Istanbul where it employs over 120 people. There are regional offices across Turkey and abroad which in total employ a further 100 people.
    Özgür Gündem has a predominantly left-wing political orientation. It is also pro-Kurdish in its cultural and political outlook. As a result of this radical cocktail, it has come under the scrutiny of the Turkish Government and its security forces, and has been subject to harassment, confiscations, raids and legal proceedings from the first issue of May 31, 1992.
    The combined effect of these measures led to the closure of the newspaper on January 15, 1993, with an attendant loss of over TL 300 million. The financial problems occurred when its distribution company, Ergani, was induced to break its contract. The paper's subsequent attempt to organize distribution by volunteers failed due to intimidation.
    Özgür Gündem started publication again on April 26, 1993, when it merged with another radical newspaper, Yeni Ülke. However, the pressure on the newspaper restarted and increased in a dramatic way.
    Since May 1992, 39 out of 228 issues of Özgür Gündem were confiscated by the SSC under the Anti-Terror Law and the Turkish Penal Code. As a result, its proprietor, Yasar Kaya, and its news editor were fined in total $16,029 and $8,034 respectively.
    The Kurdish-Turkish weekly newspaper Azadi, published in Istanbul, was banned for two weeks on May 13, 1994, after the Court of Cassation upheld the verdict of the Istanbul SSC to forbid the publication of this newspaper on grounds of its violation of the Anti-Terror Law.  Three other verdicts to ban the newspaper for a limited period of time, amounting to a total of six weeks, are still pending before the Court of Cassation.
    Azadi has been published since May 17, 1992. Of the 104 issues that have been published so far, 66 have been confiscated on court orders. The distribution of the issues that have not been confiscated has suffered from massive interference by police forces and soldiers, especially in Kurdistan. Numerous court proceedings are currently pending before the
    In a total of 66 court proceedings, the Istanbul SSC prosecutor has demanded a total of 38.5 years of imprisonment with hard labour and a fine of TL 13.666 trillion against the managing editors of the newspaper. In court actions that have been concluded, the publishers and chief editors have been sentenced to a total of 11 years of imprisonment and fines amounting to TL 2.716 billion.


    Reporters sans frontières (Reporter without frontiers)  sent a second international delegation, made up of Swiss, French and Spanish journalists, to Turkey at the end of March 1994 to study the evolution of the Turkish press regime since the beginning of 1993 when its first mission to Turkey brought to light the serious breaches in the freedom of the press.
    The following is the summary of the 48-page report entitled Suffocation:
    1. Between three and nine journalists were killed in Turkey in 1993, exercising or because of their profession. This large degree of uncertainty is due partly to the inadequate definition of the status of journalists. It is also partly due to the lack of details of the circumstances in which the murders took place, which our delegation was not able to investigate further. Eight newspaper sellers and distributors were also assassinated. Once again it is to be deplored that the Police inquiries have proved inefficient or inexistent. Members of the security forces are probably directly or indirectly responsible for part of the murders.
    2. Our delegation noted and deplored that all the other types of intimidation used against the press had worsened in 1993. Beforehand, these intimidations only hit the militant press. At present it is increasingly extended to all of the press, once it risks treating certain political subjects. These intolerable pressures originate with the authorities as well as different armed groups, notably from the PKK. Because of this increase in intimidations we have chosen to call this report "Suffocation" (the report on our mission in January 1993 was called "Intimidation").
    3. The extra legal pressures (threats, arbitrary arrests, kidnappings, physical violences, interferences in distribution) continue, especially in the south east areas of the country, where the consequences can be seen in the reduction in the free-flow of information concerning a conflict which is worsening. But these pressures are extending geographically to the rest of the country.
    4. The legal pressures - seizures of publication, convictions under laws which severely limit the freedom of expression - have increased and go beyond the Kurd problem. Around 80% of the trials which go before the State Security Courts, established to fight against terrorism, are aimed at publications, which is a clear indication that the anti-terrorism law is used more to muzzle the press than to fight terrorism. The sanctions are becoming more and more sever, threatening the survival of the militant publications.
    5. The legislative reforms promised in 1991 in favour of the freedom of the press have lead to nothing. On the other hand, a reform concerning anti-terrorism is being prepared. It will considerably worsen the breaches in the freedom of expression.
    6. Lastly, our delegation deplores the sensational tendency of the major newspapers which risk resulting new restrictions in the freedom of the press. Hopefully all the members of the profession will respect the same professional code of ethics.


    The Turkish press which boasts about its technological superiority in the world, despite this advantage, is continuously losing readers because of its failure in journalistic and managerial qualities.
    In a country where the population has risen to  60 million, total daily circulation always remains as low as 2.7 million for years.
    At first, the media managers claimed that illiteracy was a factor in the low circulation. Yet, even when the literacy rate increased, circulation did not move despite the rapid increase in the population.
    So the papers tried to boost their sales through costly promotion campaigns. In the past they have given away apartments, cars, TV sets and electrical appliances. The promotion wars continued, reaching new heights last year when Sabah decided to give complete volumes of encyclopaedias to all its readers free of charge. Milliyet and Hürriyet had to follow suit. So, each saw sales climbing to the one million mark. This created the false impression that the overall circulation figure in Turkey had shot up from 2.5 million to 3.5 million. Yet, as soon as the promotion handouts were finished sales started to drop. Thousands of journalists have been fired.
    One major reason why the three biggest dailies have received so many setbacks in the past few months is the growing public awareness that they have been extremely biased in favour of the unpopular government of Prime Minister Tansu Ciller and have been spreading all kinds of misinformation.
    As they are losing readers, three conservative dailies, Türkiye, Zaman and Milli Gazete, with joint sales of more than half a million have joined the big league because of the recent rise of Islamist movement in Turkey.
    As for the left-wing or pro-Kurdish dailies, under the impossibility of reaching readers under legal and extra-legal pressures, they have already been condemned to low circulations. Left-wing Aydinlik and pro-Kurdish Özgür Gündem have been obliged to stop their publication because of prison terms, fines, extra-judicial executions, death-threats, etc.
    The circulations of the dailies at the end of May 1994 are as follows:

Sabah    482,000
Hürriyet    438,000
Türkiye (Islamist)    341,000
Milliyet    283,000
Zaman (Islamist)    259,000
Fotomaç    170,000
Gün    87,000
Meydan    76,000
Bugün    71,000
Cumhuriyet (Kemalist)    56,000
Yeni Asir    52,000
Fotospor    34,000
Milli Gazete (Islamist)    23,000
Süper Tan    23,000
Yeni Günaydin    13,000
Özgür Ülke (successor of Özgür Gündem)    12,500
Tercüman    4,000


    As the Radio-TV was adopted by the National Assembly on April 20, waves of criticism against its contents continued with full steam.
    According to the law, a Supreme Board of Broadcasting is authorised to supervise Radio and TV stations and, if necessary, to close down the private media channels. This supreme board will consist of nine members, five of which will be proposed by the government, the rest by the opposition.
    The Association of Contemporary Jurists (CHD) said the bill would not bring freedom. "While Supreme Board of Broadcasting should be impartial, the law turns it into an extension of the government. It is shortcoming that universities, the press, associations, and trade unions are not represented in the SBB."
    The chairman of the Istanbul Bar, Turgut Kazan said that the structuring of the SBB was of the nature that might cause "serious consequences" and called upon the parties not to "fall into the trap of partisanship."
    The Committee to Protect Journalists in the USA sent a letter on May 12 to the members of the Turkish Parliament, drawing their attention to the shortcomings of the new law.
    The committee specifically complained about Article 4, which lists 20 broadcasting principles; Article 24, which denies political parties, associations, trade unions and newspapers the right to establish their own radio and TV stations; and Article 25, which gives the prime minister the right to stop any broadcast without any need for a court order.

    On the claims that German military aid was being used against Kurdish villages, the German Government announced in April that it would suspended its military shipment to Turkey until it examined these claims. However, on May 4, German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel announced that the suspension had been lifted. "The examination made by the Defence Ministry experts concluded that a deployment in violation of the assistance treaty could not be proven," he said.
    However, the decision to resume shipments of military material was severely criticised by the German opposition. "Foreign Minister Kinkel made a mockery of the suffering of the Kurdish population," said Social Democrat Karsten Voigt.
    As for Turkey, while Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin was welcoming the German decision, Defence Minister Mehmet Gölhan, during his visit to Paris on May 6, said: "We can get arms from anywhere, as scores of countries are eager to sell arms. Right after the decision of suspension, I went to Russia and concluded a $200 million deal. The Germans have heard of my visit to France. Seeing that we can get arms anywhere, they have decided to reverse their decision, which might not have been reversed until after the elections."


    During a private visit of Premier Ciller to the United States at the end of May 1994, the US House of Representatives decided to withhold 25 percent  of the principal amount of direct loans for Turkey until the Secretary of State submits to the Committees on Appropriations a report on the allegations of abuses against civilians by the Turkish armed forces and the situation in Cyprus.
    The decision is based on a report by David R. Obey, chairman of the Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs.  The report severely criticised Turkey's human rights citing "extra-judicial executions and 'disappearances', bombings of villages in the Southeast, imprisonments and torture."
    The report cites the State Department's 1993 human rights reports, and statements from the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and the UN Committee Against Torture to draw attention to the "escalation of violence and human rights abuses" in Turkey.
    "The committee is alarmed to learn that there are currently dozens of prisoners of conscience in Turkey, including the Secretary-general of the Human Rights Association. These individuals have been detained for the non-violent expression of their beliefs," the report said.
    The same concern was aired a short while ago in a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)-sponsored International Human Rights Law Group briefing, again held in Congress.
    "Finally," Obey said, "the committee condemns the arrest following the removal of parliamentary immunity of six Kurdish members of Parliament for expressing their views. Two of these members, Leyla Zana and Ahmet Türk, are also charged with expressing views before the United State Congress in a CSCE hearing (in 1993.)"    Obey urged the US administration "to work with the Turkish government to establish an independent commission with full investigatory and persecutory powers in the next six months to look into the abolition of the practice of torture in Turkey."
    When she returned to Turkey on May 30, Prime Minister Ciller announced that the restriction of US military aid was unacceptable to Turkey. She claimed that she had a telephone conversation with US president Bill Clinton and said him that Turkey might decline.


    On May 31, in a statement that made headlines in several newspapers, Chief of Staff Gen. Dogan Güres said that Russia became a serious threat to Turkey.
    Noting that everyday 40 plane loads of military equipment are being sent to Armenia, Gen. Güres said: "We are going through some tense days. Russian troops are positioned on our border with Armenia. Russia is conducting an expansionist police, acting with the same sentiments as in the czarist era."
    "A year ago I had seen that Russia was pursuing expansionist policies, and I put that fact on record at a NATO meeting. Russia claims it should have a say concerning the 30 million people of Russian origin living outside the borders of the Russian federation. It is 'playing' with Georgia, Crimea, Ukraine and Azerbaijan."
    Gen. Güres' statement is interpreted as an attempt to get support from public opinion for the militarist policies adopted by the government.


    The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe adopted, on April 13, 1994, the following resolution on the arrest and detention of six members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly:
    1. The arrest of eight members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, on 2 and 3 March 1994 (two of whom were released on March 4), immediately raised widespread and deep concern at various political levels in Europe, especially as the detained parliamentarians, in view of the charges brought against them and in accordance with article 125 of the Turkish Penal Code, are liable to the death penalty.
    2. Grave concern was voiced by the President of the Assembly in letters which he addressed to the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers and to the Chairmen of the national parliamentary delegations to the Council of Europe and to the leaders of the Assembly's political groups. His proposal to hold an urgent debate during the April 1994 part-session was taken up by the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights at its meeting of 21 March 1994.
    3. The Assembly, once more, wants to express its abhorrence of any terrorist acts, and use of violence, irrespective of by whom it is perpetrated, and very much hopes that the dreadful and bloody conflict in south-eastern Turkey will very soon find a peaceful solution.
    4. The Assembly is fully aware of the need to preserve the political unity and territorial integrity of the Republic of Turkey and acknowledges that finding a peaceful, democratic and non-separatist solution to this problem is solely the responsibility of the citizens of that Republic.
    5. However, by making their declarations, the six detained members of the parliament, — all of Kurdish origin and members of the DEP — did not go beyond using their right to freedom of expression which is guaranteed in Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights as well as in the Turkish Constitution.
    6. Thus, the Assembly cannot accept the lifting of the parliamentary immunity, the prosecution, the arrest and subsequent detention of six members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey for charges solely based on public statements and written publications of these members claiming the recognition of the existence of a Kurdish identity and advocating forms of (cultural) autonomy for the region which has a population of predominantly Kurdish origin.
    7. In conclusion, the Assembly:
    i. impresses on its Turkish parliamentary delegation and on the Turkish authorities that the arrest, detention and prosecution of members of the GNA for the political views they voice because these views are — in the opinion of these authorities — of a criminal nature, is a possible threat to the very essence of parliamentary democracy, and that such a persecution — if it is necessary — should be conducted with the greatest concern for parliamentary rights and civil liberties;
    ii. calls on the Turkish authorities to withdraw the existing charges before the state Security Court against the six members of parliament based on political statements that are allegedly treasonable, as it cannot reasonably be treasonable to advocate constitutional change by parliamentary means;
    iii. calls on the Turkish authorities to withdraw their request before the Constitutional Court to "close" the DEP party on the grounds of treasonable aims (that is separatism), this request being solely based on one single document and on two statements which urge changes within the Turkish Constitution, and therefore seem to fall within the limits of free speech, certainly for a parliamentary party;
    iv. calls on the Turkish authorities to make use of the possibility of preparing its case for the prosecution against the six deputies — if the authorities insist on pursuing the persecution — without holding them in detention, as this makes their work as representatives of the people impossible;
    v. calls on the Turkish authorities to take initiatives for a peaceful and political solution to "the Kurdish question" within its frontiers, inlcuding the repeal of all legislation which makes normal political discourse and free speech about specific changes in the Constitution (in this case "the indivisibility of the state") a treasonable offence;
    vi. calls on all its members to use every opportunity to raise the case of their six Turkish colleagues with the Turkish authorities;
    vii. urges especially its Turkish parliamentary delegation to create a political middle-ground in the Turkish Parliament for a dialogue that recognises the existence of "the Kurdish question" and seeks a peaceful political solution for it.


    The European Parliament adopted on April 21 a resolution calling on the European Union governments to cut off military aid to Ankara, condemning human rights abuses.
    The resolution condemned the detention of six Kurdish deputies, the arrest of European observers for local elections in the Kurdish region. The European Parliament was appalled by the number of journalists operating in the Southeast who had been arrested, abducted or murdered and was concerned that Turkish forces had destroyed more than 120 villages in that area in 1994 alone.
    The European Parliament also condemned terrorist attacks in Istanbul and other places attributed to the PKK and called on the European Union to promote a peaceful settlement of the conflict.
    In answer to this resolution, Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman Ferhat Ataman said: "It is impossible to take this decision seriously. The decision, taken under the influence of obvious circles is filled with factual errors and in no way complementary with the truth."


    From 20 to 28 March 1994, a Belgian-Dutch delegation went in mission to Eastern Turkey for controlling the respect to human rights on the occasion of March 27 elections and Newroz (Kurdish New Year). Germain Dufour and  Michiel Maertens (Belgian Senators), Dr. Hand Feddema (anthropologist and representative of the Dutch Green-Left Party), Peter Paul Mok (Dutch lawyer), Pim Ligtvoet (Dutch priest), four Belgian and Dutch journalists took part in the mission.
    Following are their conclusions:
    1. The Kurds cannot freely celebrate Newroz.
    2. In the South-East region of Turkey, the election was held in a repressive atmosphere.
    3. In Kurdistan, South-East region of Turkey, the population was forced in many times to escape from the military who set their houses on fire.
    4. The participation to elections in the South-East region of Turkey was very low, in many villages under 50 per cent. It was due to the fact that many refugees could not be registered and that Kurds boycotted the vote.
    5. In the villages of Kurdistan, the percentage of invalid votes was very high.
    6. Our delegation was subjected to restrictions as regards their freedom to voyage.
    7. Very shocking were:
        - the arrest of the delegation's two members
        - the arrest of our Kurdish guides
        - the torture of Kurds refusing to aid repression
        - the bombing of four Kurdish villages near to Sirnak on 25 March ended in 41 deaths and a number of wounded. The super governor, M. Erkan, qualified this as "an error by the military."
    8. Neither the human rights of Kurds nor the collective rights of the Kurdish people as a national minority in Turkey are respected. Although to speak in Kurdish is allowed, this language cannot be used neither in radio, television, newspapers, books, cassettes nor in official works.
    The delegation calls on the Turkish Government:
    1. To restore the rights of DEP parliamentarians, particularly their right to speak in freedom, and to end the proceeding aiming to ban the DEP.
    2. To re-establish the press freedom and to release the journalists of Özgür Gündem.
    3. To negotiate a cease-fire and to open a dialogue with all representatives of Kurds at a round-table (the PKK is one of the Kurdish political families).
    4 To organize rapidly new local and regional elections in the South-Eastern Turkey.
    - To replace the military occupation by a political solution to the Kurdish problem. For example, a form of federalism, with cultural and regional autonomy.
    The delegation also calls on the European Union and its member states to put a heavy pressure on Turkey for respecting all human rights on its territory and not to conclude custom union with this state as far as the political and cultural rights of the Kurdish minority are not fulfilled.


    In a move of solidarity with the Kurdish lawyers under pressure, the Brussels Bar Association signed a convention of twinning with the Diyarbakir Bar Association on May 21, 1994 in Diyarbakir.
    The Diyarbakir Bar Association has about 250 members. The proceedings started at the end of 1993 against 16 lawyers before the Diyarbakir SSC were later extended to five other attorneys. Besides, some other lawyers have been accused of having contacts with some international organizations such as Amnesty International and tarnished Turkey's image abroad.
    Ten other lawyers subjected to menaces had to flee Diyarbakir
    What is graver, three lawyers of Diyarbakir have been assassinated since the beginning of 1994: Kazim Ekinci, Davut Ufuk Demirel and Yusuf Ziya Ekinci.
    Trials before the Diyarbakir SSC are increasing  and hundreds' years of prison are demanded each week. The SSC functions without making any judicial holiday.
    Any attorney visiting his client in prison is exposed to the risk of being charged as an accomplice.
    In solidarity with their Kurdish colleagues, the Brussels Bar Association and the Attorneys Without Frontiers organization have sent missions to Turkey in five different dates.
    The fifth mission, composed of Bar Association President Pierre Legros and Attorney Georges-Henri Beauthier,  went to Turkey in May and visited first the former mayor of Diyarbakir, Mehdi Zana, arrested on May 13, 1994, and a number of lawyers. Later, they passed to Diyarbakir and held a series of meetings with their colleagues on May 21-22, 1994.
    According to the signed convention of twinning between the Diyarbakir Bar Association President Fethi Gümüs and his Belgian counterpart Pierre Legros, each side is committed:
    - to favour and intensify collaboration between their members,
    - to inform each other of their activities and to favour the participation of their members in this action,
    - to exchange, in a unlimited manner, informations on the subjects of common interest of two sides,
    - to favour, respecting legal rules, the installation of cabinets and the inscription to a bar association of the members of the other bar association;
    - to develop a mutual support for that the European Convention on Human Rights and the Convention is respected.
    The two sides also agreed to have a meeting in Brussels at the end of September 1994, to collaborate during the proceedings before the European Court of Human Rights, to organize a seminary in Diyarbakir and to exchange young attorneys for training.
    During this visit the Diyarbakir Bar Association became a member of the Attorneys Without Frontiers association. On the other hand, the names of Belgian lawyers Legros and Beauthier were written on the table of the Diyarbakir Bar Association. They said that, from now on, any attack on a Diyarbakir lawyer will be considered as an attack on a Brussels attorney.


    1.4, trade unionist Sükrü Sahin is detained by police in Istanbul.
    1.4,  Abdülhakim Aslan, Abdullah Temiz and Muhittin Altun fall victims of political murders in Batman, Fazil Alay  in Diyarbakir.
    2.4, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Nurullah Ensari and Lokman Altun in Batman.
    2.4, the daily Özgür Gündem reports that security forces, raiding the village of Incirli in Bitlis on March 26, shot dead headman Sükrü Karaca and two other Kurdish peasants.
    2.4, the Human Rights Association (IHD) protested against the bombing of three villages in Sirnak, Kumcati, Sapaca and Gever, by military planes on March 26.
    2.4, the Kayseri SSC sentences five militants of the Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey (TDKP) to prison terms of up to four years and two months.
    3.4, in Bursa, 17 alleged activists of the Aczmendi religious order are taken into custody.
    3.4, in Izmir, nine people are placed under arrest by the Izmir SSC for participating in the activities of the illegal left-wing organization Ekim (October).
    4.4, Doctor Ilhan Diken is sentenced by the Diyarbakir SSC to three years and nine months in prison for having given medical care to a wounded PKK militant at the Diyarbakir State Hospital.
    4.5, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Ekrem Uludag in Diyarbakir and Servet Ulutas in Batman.
    5.4, seven students are expelled from the 9 Eylül University in Izmir for having led a campaign against capital punishments.
    5.4, in Ankara, three relatives of DEP deputy Sirri Sakik who is still under arrest, are taken into custody by police.
    5.4, in Batman, Serif Gezer is shot dead by unidentified gunmen.
    5.4, the police announce the arrest of six people in Kiziltepe (Mardin).
    6.4, unidentified persons destroy 75 tombs at the Jewish Graveyard in Istanbul.
    6.4, the Kayseri SSC sentences two persons to life-prison for PKK activities.
    6.4, unidentified gunmen shoot dead the quarter headman Necdet Kont in Viransehir (Urfa) and Burhanettin Araz in Diyarbakir.
    6.4, in Ankara, security forces detained four university students for illegal activities.
    7.4, a penal court of Istanbul sentences eight people to one-week imprisonment each for being members of a religious order.
    7.4, in Izmir,  trade union official Ihsan Agir is detained by police.
    7.4, unidentified assailants murder Kazim Ekinci and Fahri Inan in Viransehir and Mehmet Ali Durak in Silvan.
    9.4, in Nusaybin, Necmettin Gürbüz is found assassinated after a three-day disappearance. Same day, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Mehmet Tevfik Ciftsüren and Metin Güzel in Diyarbakir.
    10.4, in Diyarbakir, the former chairman of the Health Workers' Union (Tüm Saglik Sen), Necati Sen, and Mehmet Ay are found assassinated. Aydin had been released six days ago following a two-week police detention. Same day in Diyarbakir, tradesman Hasan Güzel is shot dead by unidentified gunmen.
    10.4, pro-government village protectors raiding the village Kutlu in Diyarbakir shoot dead five peasants and two children and wound twelve others.
    11.4, local RP chairman  of Igdir, Vahap Akar is found assassinated after being kidnapped by PKK militants.
    11.4, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Recep Dagdelen in Diyarbakir and Tevfik Altuner in Batman.
    11.4, the governor of Konya closes down the Association for Freedoms and Rights (Özgür-Der) in Eregli for having inside some forbidden publications. Besides, police detain the association's chairwoman Hatice Ögüt.
    12.4, in Burdur, Adnan Akgün and Cetin Yesilyayla claim to have been tortured by five policemen after their detention.
     12.4, in Izmir, three Christian graveyards in different quarters are destroyed by unidentified people.
    12.4, in Bitlis, Murat Toygun falls victim of  a political murder.
    12.4, in Adana, police take into custody eight people during a series of repressive operations. Besides, three university students are detained for having put on walls some posters claiming the right to higher education without any restriction.
    13.4, the People's House of Yildirim District is closed down by the governor of Bursa for having let some non-member people enter in. 
    14.4, in Ankara, police disperse by using force a student demonstration to protest education against payment, wounds 20 students and detains about 50 demonstrators. Two similar demonstrations in Istanbul too are dispersed by force and 70 students detained.
    14.4, four alleged PKK activists are indicted by the Prosecutor of Istanbul SSC for an attempt against a military school's cadets and face capital punishment according to Article 125 of the Turkish Penal Code.
    14.4, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Bülent Isci in Diyarbakir.
    14.4, the Samsun IHD office is raided by police, four people inside taken into custody and all documents confiscated.
    15.4, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Mustafa Cengiz in Kiziltepe and Nihat Bas in Diyarbakir.
    16.4, the Istanbul SSC Prosecutor started a legal proceeding against 17 alleged PKK militants of whom seven face capital punishment. Among the other defendants facing prison terms of up to fifteen years are also DEP candidate for Diyarbakir Mayorship, Metin Toprak and the former chairwoman of the Education Workers' Trade Union (Egit-Sen), Nezahat Koc.
    16.4, the People's House of Osmangazi District is closed down for ten days by
the governor of Bursa for having let some non-member people enter in.
    16.4, the Ankara prosecutor started a legal proceeding against the top official of the Turkish Doctors' Union (TTB) for having carried out a demonstration in front of the Prime Minister's office in January for protesting against the working conditions of health workers.
    19.4, the police announce the arrest of 12 alleged PKK militants in Adana four students in Sivas.
    20.4, in Istanbul, the Association of the Graduates from Alibeyköy High school (ALYED) is closed down by the order of the governor for having inside some issued of the daily Özgür Gündem.
    20.4, in last week, fifteen people have been detained in Ankara in relation with the operation against an outlawed organization.
    20.4, unidentified gunmen assassinate Ahmet Özcelik and Suat Evcil in Batman.
    21.4, an army major, Ali Sahin, and three NCOs accused of having tortured to death a teacher named Siddik Bilgin in Bingöl in July 1985, are acquitted by the Criminal Court N°2 of Ankara on grounds of prescription, although the fact of torturing is found undeniable. The accused officers had earlier been sentenced to one-year imprisonment each, but the Court of Cassation overruled  the sentence and sent back the file to the court.
    21.4, during repressive operation against PKK sympathisers in Karayazi (Erzurum), security forces detain twelve high school students of whom three are not yet 18 years old. Same day, in Adana, eight university students are detained for Pro-PKK activities.
    22.4, unidentified assailants  assassinate Resat Baser in Batman and Ahmet Aydin in Diyarbakir.
    22.4, in Diyarbakir, Kurdish tradesman Mehmet Serif Avsar has been kidnapped by village protectors.
    23.4, in Izmir, Sami Gümüs, Mustafa Ceylan, Kerem Bulut, Bilge Sahin and Nazmiye Aksoy claim to have been tortured at the Political Police Headquarters after being detained during a demonstration against price hikes.
    23.4, a DEP founder, Nevzat Teker, is sentenced by the Izmir SSC to 20 months in prison and TL 208 million in fine for his speech at the DEP Manisa Congress in October 1993.
    23.4, the Diyarbakir SSC sentence 21 persons, mainly leading officials of trade unions, associations and media, to 20 months in prison and TL 208 million in fine each for a common declaration in defence of human rights on behalf of a the Diyarbakir Platform for Democracy. They are accused of instigating the people against law and order by virtue of Anti-Terror Law.
    25.4, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Mehmet Emin Gölcü, Davut Toprak, Erdal Aldeniz and Bahri Tekin in Diyarbakir.
    26.4, the Izmir SSC sentences 13 PKK defendants to prison terms of up to fifteen years. Gendarmes beat the defendants when they begin to shout slogans in protest against the verdict.
    27.4, DEP Adiyaman Chairman Abuzer Önen who was wounded by unidentified gunmen on April 11, dies at an Adana hospital.
    27.4, left-wing prisoners at the Buca prison in Izmir have reportedly been beaten by guardians raiding their wards and about 80 of them wounded.
    29.4, teacher Recep Uyur, member of the Teachers' Trade Union (Egit-Sen), is assassinated by unidentified gunmen in Diyarbakir.
    29.4, former mayor of Diyarbakir, Mehdi Zana is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to two years in prison and TL 100 millions in fine for his speech at a HEP meeting on June 28, 1992. At the same trials, two other defendants too are sentenced to same punishments.
    30.4, in Diyarbakir, butcher Ilhan Böcküm falls victim of a political murder.
    30.4, in Adana, a housewoman named Feristay Gül claims to have been tortured by police after being detained on April 22 together with her husband and children. "They threatened me with throwing from the 4th floor if I do not sign a declaration invented by themselves," she said.
    30.4 the governor of Adana closes down 40 cafés for up to 25 days for not being opened on March 21 for celebrating Newroz (Kurdish New Year).


    2.4, the Istanbul SSC sentences the former editor of the periodical Mücadele, Namik Kemal Cibaroglu to six months in prison and TL 50 million in fine. The publisher of the magazine, Gülten Sesen too is sentenced to a fine of TL 100 million. The court also decides to ban the publication of Mücadele for fifteen days.
    3.4, the issue N°13 of the Kurdish literary magazine Rewsen is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC.
    4.4, the responsible editor of the periodical Sterka Rizgari, Cihan Kartal claims to have been tortured together with her sisters, Songül Kartal and Özgül Kartal, after their arrest on March 27. "Three readers of the review who were at the office during the police raid too were subjected to torture," he said.
    4.4, the issue N°6 of the monthly Partizan is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    4.4, the Adana office of the periodical Özgür Halk is raided by police and many documents inside confiscated.
    5.4, the owner of the Yurt Publishing House, Ünsal Öztürk is sentenced by the Ankara SSC to twelve months in prison and TL 250 million in fine for having published a book entitled The Crying Breath of The Miner. Journalist Naile Tuncer who had edited the book is sentenced to the same punishment.
    5.4, the periodicals Mücadele N°96 and Gelenek N°45 are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC.
    6.4, the publisher and editor of the periodical Emegin Bayragi, Nazim Taban is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to two years in prison and TL 50 million in fine for some articles he published in September 1991.
    8.4, former publisher of the daily Özgür Gündem, Yasar Kaya is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to TL 150 million 580 thousand in fine for some articles published on January 1 and 8, 1993. The tribunal also issues an arrest warrant against the former editor of the newspaper.
    8.4, the Istanbul SSC sentences the former editor of the monthly Kurtulus, Mustafa Yilmaz to a 3-year imprisonment and a fine of TL 300 million, and the magazine's former publisher Erdal Cinar to a fine of TL 250 million. The tribunal also decides to ban the magazine from publication for fifteen days.
    8.4, the chief editor of the periodical Emegin Bayragi, Hüseyin Tekin is placed under arrest by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    9.4, the periodicals Gencligin Sesi N°11 and Deng N°27 are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    10.4, two journalists, Nadire Mater and Filiz Kocali, and five members of the IHD are taken into police custody in Istanbul for distributing an anti-racist leaflet entitled "Don't touch to my pal!"
    11.4, the Court of Cassation ratified one-year imprisonment and a fine of TL 125 million against the former editor of the fortnightly Mücadele, and a fine of TL 250 million against the magazine's owner Gülten Sesen. The fines of TL 25 million and TL 50 million respectively against another former editor of Mücadele, Namik Kemal Cibaroglu, and Gülten Sesen too are ratified by the same higher court.
    12.4, in Istanbul, two correspondents of the periodical Emegin Bayragi, Necibe Savaskan and Dilaver Peker claim to have been tortured at a police station after being taken into custody.
    12.4, the editor of the weekly Azadi, Sedat Karakas is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to two years in prison and a fine of TL 5O million. The owner of the weekly, Ikramettin Oguz too is sentenced to a fine of TL 83 million.
    12.4, the Istanbul SSC sentences the editor of the periodical Serketin, Sahin Gül, to five months in prison and TL 43 million in fine, and the magazine's owner Zeynel Aydin to a fine of TL 83 million.
    12.4, the Istanbul SSC confiscates the periodicals Azadi N°100 and Hedef N°30 for separatist propaganda.
    13.4, a former editor of the daily Özgür Gündem, Seyh Davut Karadag, is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to two years in prison and TL 31O million 628 thousand in fine. In another case against the same newspaper, the same court sentences another former editor, Isik Yurtcu, to TL 90 million in fine and former owner Yasar Kaya to TL 181 million 785 thousand.
    13.4, the issue N°26 of the periodical Devrimci Emek is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for propaganda in favour of the Communist Labour Party of Turkey (TKEP).
    13.4, the Adana office of the periodical Alinteri is raided by police and some documents confiscated.
    14.4, the daily Özgür Gündem is closed down for fifteen days after the ratification of a SSC decision by the Court of Cassation. The higher court ratifies also 5-month imprisonment and a fine of TL 62 million against a former editor of Özgür Gündem, Seyh Davut Karadag, and a fine of TL 125 million against the former publisher Yasar Kaya.
    14.4, the Court of Cassation ratifies two years in prison and TL 250 million in fine against Bülent Genc, a former editor of the periodical Emegin Bayragi, and a decision to ban the magazine's publication for fifteen days.
    14.4, during the student demonstrations in Ankara and Istanbul, police harass a number of journalists covering events. One of the beaten journalists, Ahmet Sik of the daily Cumhuriyet, is hospitalised for the risk of cerebral haemorrhage.
    17.4, a book entitled Kemal Fevzi of Bitlis and His Place in Kurdish Organizations and published by the Firat Publishing House is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    18.4, a penal court of Istanbul sentences two groups of Interstar TV producers to heavy fines for broadcasting incompatible with the bans imposed by the Electoral Law. First, Cem Uzan, Ozcan Ertuna, Serpil Akillioglu, Ardan Zentürk, Özden Akbal and Duran Dündaroglu are sentenced to a total of TL 1 billion in fine. In the other trial, Özcan Ertuna, Özden Akbal, Jülide Ates and Engin Ardic are sentenced to a similar punishment.
    19.4, the periodical Emegin Bayragi N°111 and the daily Aydinlik N°355 are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    20.4, the Istanbul SSC begins to try a businessman, Besim Tibuk, for having declared to the daily Milliyet that it might not be out of question to set up an independent Kurdish state in South-East Turkey. Tibuk and the editor of Milliyet, Eren Güvener, face each two-year imprisonment and a fine of up to TL 100 million.
    21.4, an anti-war activist, Aytek Özel is sentenced by the Military Court of the Turkish General Staff to one year and 15 days in prison and TL 210 thousand in fine for an interview he gave to the private television HBB.  Accused of inciting the people against military service, he has been under arrest since February 7, 1994.  Two journalists who interviewed Özel, Erhan Akyildiz and Ali Tevfik Berber had already been sentenced by the same military court to two months in prison each.
    22.4, raiding the Ankara office of the periodical Odak, police detain 18 people inside. Two of the detainees who are released later for the deterioration of their health say to have been subjected to torture along with the others.
    23.4, the former publisher of the weekly Azadi, Ikramettin Oguz, is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to a total of TL 450 million in fine in four different cases against the newspaper.
    24.4, a book entitled The Cadre and the Future and written by Sinan Ciftyürek is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda. The SSC prosecutor opens a legal proceeding against the author and the publishing house Pelê-Sor.
    25.4, the periodicals Mücadele N°93 and Newroz N°9 are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    27.4, the Court of Cassation ratifies the heavy punishment against journalist-writer Haluk Gerger. He had been sentenced by the Ankara SSC to 20 months in prison and TL 208 million in fine for a message he sent to a meeting in Ankara on May 22, 1993.
    28.4, the first issue of the new daily Özgür Ülke is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    29.4, the Istanbul SSC sentences the responsible editor of the weekly Aktüel, Alev Er, to a fine of TL 210 million 675 thousand for having published an interview with PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan. The owner of the magazine, Ercan Arikli too is sentenced to TL 421 million 351 thousand in fine on the same accusation.
    30.4, the governor of Tunceli bans the sale of 38 different musi-cassettes containing Kurdish songs.


    Neo-Nazis on a "hunt for foreigners" stormed Turkish-run food stands in Magdeburg on 12 May 1994 and the Turks fought back with knives in a bloody melee that left at least six people seriously injured.
    The Turks were defending other foreigners who had sought refuge inside their stands. Neo-Nazis later clashed with left-wing groups who turned out to defend the foreigners and, after nightfall, about 50 neo-Nazis were arrested rioting in the city centre.
    The rampage was among the most serious in post-unification Germany incited by hate mongers, and the worst for Magdeburg, an eastern German state capital 120 kilometres west of Berlin.
    Two weeks later, about 4,000 anti-racist demonstrators staged a rally in Solingen on 28 May 1994 amid tight police security to mark the first anniversary of a neo-Nazi arson attack that killed five Turkish immigrants.
    Neo-Nazi violence has killed at least 30 people since Germany unity in 1990.
    Demonstrators and speakers demanded that German authorities ban more than the seven neo-Nazi groups prohibited since 1992 and urged more rights for foreign residents, who number 6.5 million in a population of 80 million.
    Four German rightists went on trial for murder and arson on April 13, accused of torching the house just six months after a racist firebombing in November 1992 killed a Turkish woman and two girls in the northern town of Moelln.