A non-government information service on Turkey
Un service d'information non-gouvernemental sur la Turquie


18th Year - N°213-214
 July-August 1994
38 rue des Eburons - 1000 Bruxelles
Tél: (32-2) 215 35 76 - Fax: (32-2) 215 58 60
 Rédacteur en chef: Dogan Özgüden - Editrice responsable: Inci Tugsavul

10th year of the war

    Turkey marks, on August 15, 1994, the 10th year of a war which is constantly pushing the country to an irreversible polarization between Turks and Kurds as well as to a total ruin in economic, social and international plans.
    Although this war was started by a PKK guerrilla attack on a gendarmerie station in Eruh, it is known that the field for such a war had already been prepared for years by the Ankara rulers denying a Kurdish identity, oppressing even the most innocent Kurdish demands for their fundamental rights and mainly by the State terrorism carried out  in Turkish Kurdistan after the 1980 military coup.
    In this context, the first PKK attack on Turkish military positions was an attempt of self-defence rather than an adventurous aggression.
    For ten years, the Turkish military have always minimised the strength of the Kurdish national movement and claimed each year that the PKK would be over in the coming year. When the PKK proposed to search a political solution to the Kurdish Question, the Turkish governments and military have categorically refused to have talks with "terrorists."     Due to Ankara's this stubborn stand that the war has reached to the horrible dimensions of today with  catastrophic consequences for Turkish economy. What is more, in the course of this war, the PKK, let alone to be crushed, has turned into a country-side national movement.
    According to Turkish figures, the PKK, which started off with only 15 people in 1978, has 375,000 supporters including 10,000 militants and 50,000 to 60,000 militias.  The PKK itself claims that it has 30,000 full-time fighters or guerrillas and some 4 million members of its ERNK — including those based in Europe
    The most dramatic consequence of the war is no doubt the the death of tens of thousands people in never-ending armed conflicts.
    The General Security Directorate, according to the Cumhuriyet, May 9, 1994, claims that the total number of the killed people on both sides during the last ten-year armed conflicts rises to 9, 982. The following are the figures given by to government side:

    The number of actions:    9,595
    Killed members of  government forces:    2,197
    Wounded members of government forces:    4,140
    Killed "separatists":    4,757
    Arrested "separatists":    2,082
    Killed civilians:    3,028
    Wounded civilians:    3,188

    On the contrary, the PKK claims that the total number of the ten-year war victims on both sides reaches to some 34,000. The following are the figures given by the ERNK spokesman Kani Yilmaz on August 12, 1994, in Brussels:

    The number of actions:    10,384
    Killed soldiers:    16,642
    Killed officers:    509
    Killed policemen and collaborators:    3,500
    Killed village protectors:    4,024
    Killed guerrillas:    3,206
    Killed civilians:    5,000
    Villages burned by security forces    2,000
    Kurds forced to migrate:    3,500,000

    Although the Ankara rulers and the military claim victory in last one-year repressive operations against the Kurdish national movement —raids on Kurdish villages, bombing civil populations, burning and destroying houses and workplaces in Kurdish villages and hamlets, air operations on the so-called PKK bases in Iraq, mass arrests, torture, closing newspapers and publications, arrest and trial distinguished Kurdish and Turkish intellectuals defending the Kurdish population's rights,  the civil war seems very from being concluded.
    At a press conference held on August 12, 1994, in Brussels, the Popular Liberation Front of Kurdistan (ERNK) spokesman Kani Yilmaz said:
    "The government in Ankara is not just waging a war against the Kurds; it is also fighting the Turkish people. There are Turkish journalists ho have been put behind bars for years. The Ankara SSC Prosecutor is acting not as an appointed public servant but seems to display qualities that are beyond the normal chain of command. He is obviously taking his cues from the office of the Chief of Staff.
    "The war in Kurdistan has reached levels that can only be described as barbarism. Thousands of villages have been burnt. Fires are raging everywhere. The harvests go up in smoke. Civilian Kurdish activists are assassinated.
    "The Turkish press continues to play its role as a loyal ally of the Turkish military. they not only give one sided news but also incite the soldiers. They fabricate stories and wage a psychological war of their own.
    "Lately they have returned to their favourite subject that 'the PKK is over.' Notwithstanding their wishes, the PKK is growing. Our army, the ARGK, is not only getting the new recruits, but also improving qualitatively. The standing Turkish army is no match to it. This is reason the Chief of Staff stopped to discharge those soldiers whose services have ended. The Turkish army has thousands of casualties but the officials want to keep this as a secret. The so called invincible Turkish army is only invincible when it burns the villages and displays the dead bodies of the Kurdish guerrillas. The recent pictures [published by the daily Özgür Ülke] show the savagery. The Turkish army is beyond the pale of humanity. Those pictures too can tell the world who is the 'terrorist' in this war.
    "We prefer a political solution. The Turkish government, to date, has resisted our overtures. Its policy of force has resulted in both internal and external mass migrations of the Kurds.
    "This leaves us no choice but to continue with the war. The world should know that there is no future for Turkey as we know it. You should cross out the thought that Turkey could win this war.
    "The balance of power is shifting in the Middle East. New forces are emerging in the region. We are urging the states and the international organization to inter into dialogue with us.
    "The economy of Turkey is bankrupt. Its army is pursuing a fictitious victory. Its standing in the international communist is tarnished. Rejecting the European Union, the CSCE and the international human rights organizations recommendations that it gives the political solution a chance, Turkey is entering a period of isolationism."


    The trial of five former deputies from the Democracy Party (DEP) and one independent Kurdish deputy began at the Ankara SSC on August 3 in a tense atmosphere amidst massive security measures and close international scrutiny.
    All six deputies —whose parliamentary immunity was lifted by the National Assembly following a vote in March— are being charged with treason under article 125 of the Turkish Penal Code.
    Former DEP Chairman Hatip Dicle and four other deputies, Orhan Dogan, Leyla Zana, Ahmet Türk and Sirri Sakik have also lost their parliamentary seats because their party was banned by the Constitutional Court. All six defendants, who have been in prison for six months, face the death penalty on charges of having established organic links with the PKK and received orders over the telephone from the PKK leader Öcalan
    Apart from the European diplomats based in Ankara, around 80 foreign observers included representatives from human rights groups such as Helsinki Watch, the International Federation of Human Rights Associations, Lawyers without Frontiers as well as parliamentarians attended the first trial. A member of the German Parliament, Siggi Martsch —deputy for the Green Party— was not allowed to enter the court hall.
    At least 300 lawyers have applied to defend the former deputies, but security officers said only lawyers officially delegated to represent them by the defendants were being allowed in.
    Inside of the court hall, the dock was surrounded by policemen obscuring the defendants from view. Outside, bus loads of blue-helmeted riot police, backed by an armoured car and dog patrols, surrounded the court building.
    The supporters from the constituencies of the former deputies were not allowed to enter Ankara. A dozen buses from across Turkey were halted at checkpoints outside Ankara. Police checked identity cards and turned back those from the mainly-Kurdish Southeast.
     During the first day trial, two prosecutors started to read the 452-page indictment. In afternoon, the deputies objected to the lengthy reading out of the indictment on the grounds that this represented a waste of time, but the court rejected this objection.
    One of the foreign observers, European Parliament member Jannis Sekellariou said "This is not a trial, it is Kafka's trial."
    Former DEP deputies on trial, issuing a fax message on August 14, charged the Turkish government was staging a show trial using faked evidence.
    "With faked evidence produced by its imagination, the government does not hesitate to trample under its feet all our rights, including our right to be tried justly," the imprisoned deputies said in a statement faxed to newspapers.
    The deputies accused Chief of Staff General Dogan Güres of plotting their plight in Parliament under the approval  of the presidency. They said Prime Minister Ciller had exerted pressure on the judiciary to speed up the trial and "finish off" the former deputies. They quoted Ciller as saying "I requested the judiciary to finish off this case as soon as possible." They charged Ciller had condemned them without a trial and what was now happening was mere formality.
    The ex-deputies also pointed to the statements of Interior Minister Nahit Mentese who said after the Parliament lifted the immunities of the deputies, "they will never come back to this Parliament.
    Apart the six deputies on trial, two other DEP deputies, Selim Sadak and Sedat Yurttas, were arrested by the Ankara SSC on July 12 and sent to prison under tight security. They are expected to appear  in court along with six other Kurdish deputies under the similar charges.
    Six other DEP deputies having lost their parliamentary seats and immunity had already fled to Europe in order to develop a campaign against the repression in Turkey.


    Human rights organizations and officials in Europe and in the United States are alarmed over new reports from Turkey that security forces have started to set up internment camps in South-eastern Turkey to hold and interrogate villagers en masse.
    Amnesty International, in a report issued at the end of July, said at least two internment areas had been set up by the military troops in the region and thousands of villagers, including women and children, detained in these camps.
    "These detentions," said Amnesty, "occurred in the course of burning and brutal evacuation of Kurdish villages during military operations against PKK guerrillas."
    Amnesty claimed a number of villages around Evrek in Hakkari had been forcibly evacuated and many houses and crops had been burned by security forces because of the villagers' refusal to join the system of village guards. About 1,500 villagers, including women and children, were held in an internment camp near Evrek in Hakkari province and some 2,000  were herded into containment area set up next to the Topcular Gendarmerie Post near Damlatepe in Diyarbakir province.
    The Turkish Daily News of July 23 reports that US officials are also looking into the alarming claims as regards internment camps in Turkey.


    The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe adopted on June 30, 1994, the following resoltuion on the consequences of the dissolution of the DEP:
    1. The Assembly recalls its Resolution 1030 (1994) of 13 April 1994 on the arrest and detention of six members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 2 and 3 March 1994 in which it, inter alia, expressed its concern on the arrest and detention of some members of the Grand National Assembly for their political views, and called on the Turkish authorities to withdraw their request before the Constitutional Court to "close" the DEP Party and in which it also called on the Turkish authorities—if they insist on pursuing the prosecution of the six DEP deputies—to release them from detention and to repeal all legislation which makes normal political discourse and free speech about specific changes in the constitution a treasonable offence.
    2. The Assembly considers that, since the adoption of its Resolution 1030 (1994) the situation has worsened, especially following, firstly, the decision of the Constitutional Court in Ankara of 17 June to "close", that is to declare unconstitutional, the DEP Party which had—apart from the six who were already detained since 23 March—thirteen members in the Grand National Assembly and, secondly, the filing on 21 June last of the indictments with the State Security Court against the six deputies, in which the death sentence has been demanded.
    3. The Assembly is concerned that, as a result of the decision of the Constitutional Court, legal proceedings will be initiated against the others as well.
    4. The Assembly notes that applications were filed with the European Commission of Human Rights by, or on behalf of, the imprisoned members of the Grand National Assembly.
    5. The Assembly reiterates, as it did in Resolution 1030, its full awareness of the need to preserve the political unity and territorial integrity of the Republic of Turkey and acknowledges that finding a peaceful, democratic and non-separatist solution to this problem is solely the responsibility of the citizens of that republic.
    6. The Assembly is convinced that a solution to the serious problems and the grave situation in south-east Turkey must be found by peaceful means, and that—apart from other considerations—the Turkish authorities made a considerable political error in eliminating the elected representatives of a part of the Turkish people rather than trying to establish a dialogue with and through them, and with others seeking a peaceful, political solution to the Kurdish problem within Turkey.
    7. The Assembly stresses the danger of the measures against the DEP deputies escalating into further breaches of the rule of law and of human rights in a democratic society, now advocacy in the public debate of changes in the Constitution (in this case urging a measure of (cultural) autonomy for the Kurdish provinces) is being construed by the authorities as a form of aiding and abetting acts of separatism and terrorism.
    8. The Assembly reiterates its abhorrence of any kind of terrorism, and wishes to stress the importance of Articles 10 and 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which grant freedom of expression, of assembly and of association—rights which take a particular dimension for members of parliament.
    9. The Assembly expresses its wish that the Turkish Grand National Assembly make all necessary efforts to adopt amendments to the Constitution, as early as possible, to bring it into line with the standards of the Council of Europe and to give back their mandates to those deputies who lost them as a result of the dissolution of the DEP.
    10. In conclusion, the Assembly therefore
    i. urges the Turkish Grand National Assembly, the Turkish authorities and the parliamentary delegation from Turkey to comply immediately with the proposals made in its Resolution 1030 (1994);
    ii. instructs its Bureau to arrange for a delegation, headed by its President, to visit Ankara in the very near future to make yet further and, hopefully, positive contacts with the Turkish authorities regarding a situation which is of such immediacy as to cause considerable distress; and
    iii. expresses the wish that Turkey receive CSCE delegations to implement the human rights mechanisms set up by that organisation. "


     The Assembly of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) recommended on July 9 that two delegations be sent to Turkey to study the case of Kurdish deputies who have been put in prison and to monitor human rights situation in Southeast Turkey.
    This decision was protested angrily by attending Turkish deputies who said Turkey would refuse to accept these delegations or any sent by the CSCE.
    The chief of the Turkish delegation, Uluc Gürkan, went further by saying to the daily Cumhuriyet of July 14 that some Western parliamentarians criticising Turkey are "the persons getting profit from the so-called drug traffic carried out by the PKK."


    In its monthly reports for June and July 1994, the Human Rights Association (IHD) horrifying numbers concerning violation of human rights in Turkey. IHD Chairman Akin Birdal, criticising officials for not taking the necessary measures to prevent such violations, said: "Each day, democracy and human rights lose blood in Turkey. The fact that people's hopes and faith in the future are rapidly being destroyed by the situation is the most dangerous aspect of all."

    In June:
    • 27 people died as a result of torture and extra judicial executions and 16 were victims of mystery murders. Another 26 people sustained injuries in attempts on their lives.
    • In clashes between the PKK guerrillas and government forces, 431 people lost their lives.
    • A total of 664 people was taken into custody and 63 of these were arrested by tribunals
    • 98 villages and hamlets were either evacuated or burned.
    • The number of victims of "crimes of conscience" went up to 103.
    • Tribunals gave a total of 112 years and six months imprisonment and a total fine of TL 22 billion.

    In July:
    • 36 people were killed while being tortured.
    • 46 people claimed they were subjected to torture.
    • 1315 people were taken into custody and 53 of these were arrested by tribunals.
    • 49 people were reported missing after taken into custody.
    • 30 publications of various kinds were confiscated and 31 media members detained..
    • Tribunals gave a total of 44 years imprisonment and a total fine of TL 4 billion 238 million. Besides, in other cases, prosecutors asked a total of 39 years and six months imprisonment and TL 200 million in fine.
    • 9 associations were raided and closed.
    • 16 people were killed by unidentified assailants.
    • 97 villages and hamlets were either evacuated or burned.
    • 29 people lost their lives through civilian targeted attacks.
    • 524 people lost their lives in armed clashes.
    According to the July report, 109 Turkish and Kurdish intellectuals — journalists, writers, publishers, trade unionists, deputies and scientists — were in prison. With this number, Turkey holds the second rank after China  among the countries where intellectuals are systematically persecuted.
    IHD Chairman Birdal said: "July has been a tragedy regarding crimes of conscience and freedom. On one hand, the deputies who lost their Parliamentary status because they expressed their opinions face the possibility of the death penalty, and on the other, the ones who couldn't be burned in Sivas — writer Aziz Nesin — now may face death at the hands of the court."
    (For further information: Insan Haklari Dernegi - Yüksel Caddesi 29/13, Yenisehir - Ankara; Tel: 90-312-432 09 57, Fax: 90-312-425 95 47).


    The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TIHV), in a 336-page report released in July, made public the following balance sheet of human rights violations in 1993:


Deaths in custody or in prison    29
Deaths during Newroz incidents    3
Deaths during attacks on settlements    46
Those killed during house raids    57
Those killed as a result of shooting demonstrators    20
Those killed for ignoring stop warnings, etc.    109
Deaths as a result of mine explosions    123
Killings by unidentified assailants    467
Deaths during Sivas incidents    37
Killings by attacks on civilians    406
Those killed in armed attacks and assassinations    341
Security personnel killed in combat    776
Militants killed in clashes    1078

Total number of people killed in 1993    3492


Deaths in custody or in prison    29
"Disappearances" after detention    13
The number of tortured individuals*    827

Freedom Of Press, Thought And Belief

Killed journalists    7
Killed newspaper vendors    11
Press workers who disappeared    3
Journalists attacked by public officers    52
Confiscated newspapers and periodicals    425
Confiscated books    29
Closed newspapers and periodicals    14
Convicted journalists and writers    116
Total of imprisonment sentences given to journalists and writers    165 years 3 months 10 days
Total of fines given to journalists and writers    TL 38,267,000,000**
Journalists imprisoned after their sentences became decisive    18
Arrested journalists    60

Freedom Of Organization

Killed IHD officials    3
Shut down IHD branches    4
Shut down democratic mass organizations    31
Killed political party leaders    15
Killed teachers    50
Closed political parties    4
Political parties demanded to be closed    2
Banned strike    1

    * 160 of them, including 29 children and 126 women, verified the torture with medical reports they had received from official institutions. 22 of the females who reported that they had been tortured, stated that they had been raped or sexually harassed.
    ** Approximately 1.5 million US Dollars.
    [The report can be asked from  Türkiye Insan Haklari Vakfi - Menekse 2. Sokak N°16/6 - Kizilay - Ankara, Tel: (90-312) 417 71 80, Fax: (90-312) 425 45 52]


    Turkey's State Minister in charge of human rights, Mehmet Kahraman, resigned on June 25 from his government post and the SHP in protest of efforts to prevent the creation of a Human Rights Ministry.
    "Until today  I have shown patience in trying to create the organization of a human rights ministry as planned by the DYP-SHP Coalition. Because of the negative attitude the DYP group has taken on the issue of passing the law with this regard, there is no value  to stay on as a minister," he said.


    Alarmed by the rise of the Islamist Welfare Party (RP) in the March 27 local elections, the Institute of Jewish Affairs in London  cited Turkey as one of the countries where anti-Semitism was "on the rise."
    In its report entitled Anti-Semitism 1994, the institute said that Turkey and Romania were two countries where the Jewish community was under the most severe risk.
     Two years ago, the Jews of Turkey had celebrated the five centuries of religious tolerance they have enjoyed in a Muslim-dominated environment.
    The Jews who had a special minority status under the Ottomans chose to give it up in favour of ordinary Turkish citizenship after the proclamation of the Republic in 1923, seeing themselves under the protection of the State's secularism.
    However, a special tax on minorities during World War II ruined some Jewish families. About 100,000 Jews have emigrated to Israel since its creation in 1948, including some who left because of political violence which hit Turkey in the 1970s.
    Now the community has shrunk to about 25,000, concentrated in Istanbul.
    RP leaders often denounce the "evils" of US imperialism and Zionism. RP leader Erbakan very often repeats its opposition to Turkish adhesion to the European Union on grounds that "The European Union is a fifth column of Zionism."
    The Institute of Jewish Affairs report cites as a worrisome development the attack against Jak Kamhi, a famous Jewish businessman, Kamhi was the chairman of the Quincentennial Foundation - a group that organized the large-scale celebration for the 500th anniversary of the Jewish arrival in Turkey, after the Ottoman Empire opened its borders to Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition.
    Other attacks include the desecration of the largest Jewish cemetery in istanbul soon after the March elections. A group calling itself the Islamic Avengers Front of the Great East threatened Turkish Jews after an Israeli settler in Hebron massacred 30 Palestinians in a mosque in March.
    The Turkish press constantly speculates on so-called Jewish "finger" in some corruption cases.


    The first anniversary of the Sivas pogrom of July 2, 1993, during which 37 left-wing or Alevi intellectuals were assassinated by Islamists putting a hotel on fire was commemorated throughout Turkey with mass demonstrations.
    As for the legal proceeding against the accused of this horrible act, it turned into a scandalous case with the release of the majority  of the 124 defendants by the Ankara State Security Court. In an unbelievable move, the SSC Prosecutor Nusret Demiral requested capital punishment for the world-famous humorist Aziz Nesin on charges of provoking the Sivas massacre.
    On July 3, 1994, some political parties, trade unions and associations held a mass meeting in Sivas to mark the anniversary. Extra security forces were brought in from the neighbouring cities to prevent any new incident. Many demonstrators were harassed by the police and a police helicopter was seen attempting to disrupt the demonstration by hovering close to the ground, causing many people to lose their balance and fall to the ground. A group of Alevi demonstrators were beaten by police and 27 of them were arrested.
    .Same day some 30,000 demonstrators rallied down-town in Ankara with banners carrying such slogans as "Sivas will not be forgotten" and "While fanatics lit fires, the government watched."
    Commemoration ceremonies were also held in Frankfurt (Germany) where 12,000 people organized a downtown meeting supervised by police.
    The assassination of 37 intellectuals celebrating the festivities of Pir Sultan Abdal, a historical figure of the Alevi sect fighting Ottoman repression, was instigated by RP Deputy Mayor Cafer Ercakmak and other local RP officials. Even RP Mayor Temel Karamollaoglu was seen addressing the mob during the attack and saying them "I congratulate your holy cause." Ercakmak is still at large. According to a rumour, he has returned to Sivas and is presently living in this "city of radical fundamentalism." Karamollaoglu has never been indicted and was reelected mayor on the RP ticket at the last March 27 municipal elections.
    The Ankara State Security Court began to try 124 suspects on October 21, 1993. The fact that the accused are being defended at the tribunal by one of the top officials and deputies of the RP, Sevket Kazan, is taken as confirmation that the RP was somehow implicated in the Sivas pogrom.
    During the trials, the Ankara SSC has made all possible in order to save the defendants from a condemnation and already released 91 out of 124 defendants among them are also those for whom capital punishment was demanded.
    What is more, SSC Prosecutor Nusret Demiral, minimising the responsibility of those having committed the massacre, requested death penalty for writer Aziz Nesin who had published some extracts of Salman Rushdie's book The Satanic Verses in a newspaper. The prosecutor now claims that his presence in Sivas during the festivities provoked the people to attack the hotel where Nesin and other intellectuals stayed.
    The relatives of the Sivas victims, reacting against the prosecutor's demand, said: "We want to face the trial together with Aziz Nesin and the organisational committee of the Pir Sultan Abdal festivities. We all committed the mistake of trusting the government security forces and the legislative and judicial system. The SSC prosecutor wants to make it seem like the intellectuals who believe in democracy, freedom and human rights are the ones responsible, not the killers themselves."


    The three municipal re-elections held on July 10, 1994, in Istanbul confirmed the RP's rising although it happened to win only one of the mayorships, that of Beykoz district..
    The RP's votes considerably increased in each of the three municipalities, while the the DYP and the ANAP were climbing each only in one municipality. Thanks to the alliance with other right-wing parties, the DYP and the ANAP overpassing the RP votes took over the mayorships respectively in Yalova and Fatih.
    As for the three social democrat parties, SHP, DSP and CHP, all of them underwent an absolute defeat in each of the three municipalities.
    In composite percentages of the three municipalities, the RP comes out as the second strongest party with 29.46% after the ANAP (30.61%). DYP comes as third with 16.14% and is followed by DSP (12.75%), SHP (9.66%) and CHP (0.59%).


    German TV Channel 1 has found out that Turkey's Welfare Party (RP) owns 17 business ventures in Germany via the National Vision Organisation in Europe (AMGT), reports the daily Hürriyet on August 21.
    These ventures operate in various sectors including construction and food processing. Millions of Marks earned by these ventures flow into the coffers of the RP.
    The front organization, AMGT, also owns 105 pieces of real estate in Germany with a total value of DM 82 million. The TV newscasters stressed during a program that one of the executives of these business ventures is RP Chairman Necmettin Erbakan's nephew Sabri Erbakan, who is one of the leaders of the AMGT.
    During the program it was stated that the revenues the RP get from Europe come from two sources: the AMGT and the International Humanitarian Aid Organization (IHH).
    Freiburg Prosecutor Fluck indicated that the money the IHH collected from the Turkish migrant workers in Germany as aid for Bosnia, was "laundered" by being transferred into the bank account held in Turkey by an Islamist businessman named Mercümek, who is known as the "RP's cashier." The prosecutor said that they have significant documents in their hands attesting to the fact that the RP used the money collected for aid to Bosnian Muslims to finance its election campaign.


    Daily Milliyet of June 17, 1994, revealed the fabulous wealth owned by Prime Minister Tansu Ciller in the United States. According to the report, the Ciller couple, who say that they had $200 alone when they first went to the United States to attend university, now have assets worth over $7 million in that country.
    Their estates are mostly in New Hampshire and were bought discreetly over the past two years during the time Ciller served as state minister.
    Their possessions in the United States include: granite shopping centre, a luxury villa with a solarium in Salem city, a 120-room hotel and an 18-apartment building.
    On the other hand, the Britannica Yearbook 1994 disclosed in Ciller's biography that she had amassed a fortune of some 60 million dollars through real estate speculations as well in Turkey as abroad.
    Although the Turkish Grand National Assembly debated on July 15 an investigation motion concerning the source of Ciller's assets, the majority of coalition parties, DYP and SHP,  in alliance with the neo-fascist MHP decided to open an investigation on the wealth of all political leaders. So, Ciller saved herself from a special investigation on her wealth.
    The compromising attitudes of SHP leadership led to a big unrest in rank and file of this partner of the coalition.
    To calm or divide the opposition within his party, Deputy-Premier Murat Karayalcin had to change the SHP ministers in the cabinet and to appoint some figures of the opposition to ministerial posts.
    So, one of the hard-liners of the party, Mümtaz Soysal, who has made annulled some government decrees by applying to the Constitutional Court, was appointed foreign minister instead of Hikmet Cetin.


    1.6, security forces raiding the village of Bayrakli in Derik set on fire many houses and agricultural machines. During the operation, two Kurdish peasants are beaten for having refused to join pro-government Village Protectors.
    1.6, the prosecutor of the Diyarbakir SSC starts a court action against 35 alleged militants of the Menzil wing of the fundamentalist Hizbullah Movement.  For a series of acts of violence, 15 of the defendants face capital punishment, and 20 others, imprisonment of up to 15 years.
    1.6, the Malatya SSC sentences two PKK militants to life prison and five others to different prison terms of up to 18 years and 9 months.
    2.6, in Diyarbakir, Nail Talan is shot dead and teacher Nuri Demiralp wounded by unidentified assailants. Same day, the dead bodies of Bayram Kanat and Fehmi Altun are found by the side of the river Tigris.
    2.6, a top official of the HADEP and the defunct DEP, Muhsin Melik and his driver, Mehmet Ayyildiz, are shot dead by four unidentified gunmen as leaving his home in Urfa.  Just before dying, Melik says to the witnesses that he identified among the killers some policemen who were following himself everywhere.
    2.6, Özgür Ülke reports that security forces raided two Kurdish villages, Kocalar in Bismil and Alaca in Kulp on May 30 and set on fire 29 houses by pouring gasoline upon them. During the operations, two peasants are wounded in the Alaca Village that had already been raided four times.
    3.6, in Diyarbakir, unidentified assailants shoot dead teacher Kemal  Göcer and wounds another teacher, Ahmet Meraloglu. Same day, in Kiziltepe, farmers Mehmet Öncel and Sirin Özkul are shot dead after being taken out of their houses.
    4.6, a Workers' Party (IP) official in Tunceli, Önder Kirmizitas, claims to have been kidnapped and tortured by police on May 30. The traces of cigarette burnings and beatings on his body were certified by a report of the Ankara Forensic Medicine.
    5.6, Kurdish businessman Savas Buldan and his two friends, Adnan Yildirim and Haci Koray, who were kidnapped in Istanbul on June 4 are found assassinated in Bolu.  The brother of the assassinated businessman and former mayor of Yüksekova, Necdet Buldan, accuses the security forces of committing this crime for intimidating Kurdish business circles. He claims that the guns that killed his brother had been used during the assassination of another Kurdish businessman, Behcet Cantürk, and his three friends.
    5.6, teacher Nuri Demiralp, wounded on June 2, passes away in a Diyarbakir hospital.
    5.6, security forces attacking the village of Yukari Karatas with rockets and automatic weapons shoot dead a 7-year old girl, Didar Elmas, and wound three people. A number of houses are destroyed during the operation.
    7.6, the Malatya SSC sentences four alleged PKK members to prison terms of up to 12 years and 6 months. In another case, the same tribunal sentences three people to prison terms of up to three years and nine months for sheltering some Dev-Sol militants.
    7.6, in Eruh, shepherd Yusuf Elik is shot dead by Village Protectors.
    7.6, security forces raiding the village of Üzümlü in Erzincan arrest nine peasants.
    7.6, in Van, four students of the Centenary University are taken into police custody.
    8.6, in Viransehir, ten members of HADEP are taken into custody under accusation of giving shelter and aid to the PKK.
    8.6, the Ankara SSC sentences four alleged PKK members to prison terms of up to 15 years.
    9.6, a woman named Güllü Küncülü claims to have been tortured by police for 48 hours after being detained on June 6 in Gaziantep. She also says that his husband, DEP official Hüseyin Küncülü, and Ismet Dikici who were detained at the same time are still under torture. The torture traces on Mrs. Küncülü's body were attested by a medical report.
    11.6, former mayor of Hazro (Diyarbakir), Resul Dolan is taken into police custody together with three other persons. His son, Yücel Dolan had been detained last year and died under torture.
    11.6, sixteen Iranian political refugees, allegedly members of the People's Combatants, are taken into custody in Ankara and taken to Silopi in order to be delivered to Iranian authorities.
    14.6, eight members of a radical Islamist organization, the Union of Islamic Communities, are sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to different prison terms of up to two years and six months and TL 416 million in fine.
    15.6, the metropolitan mayor of Konya City, Halil Ürün is sentenced by a penal court to a fine of TL 1 million 825 thousand for having insulted Atatürk in a speech he addressed to a RP meeting. Same day, the prosecutor of the Diyarbakir SSC started a legal proceeding against the mayor of Bingöl, Selahattin Aydar, on charge of instigating the people to commit crime.
    16.6, twelve police officers accused of having assassinated Hatice Dilek Aslan and Ismail Oral during a raid on May 19, 1991, are acquitted by the Criminal Court N°1 of Kadiköy in Istanbul. The court has not taken into account the testimony of 9-year old Özgür Cihan Aslan, son of the victim Hatice Dilek Aslan, against the defendants.
    16.6, in Izmir, security forces have reportedly detained in recent days a total of 17 people accused of taking part in PKK activities.
    15.6, a Kurdish peasant from the Kislacik Village of Siirt, Ali Beki, is found dead after his detention. The parents of the victim accuse the police of torturing him to death.
    16.6, the Izmir SSC sentences four defendants to prison terms of up to 12 years and 6 months for being PKK members.
    16.6, in Divrigi, a protest march of mine workers is prevented by police using force and about 50 protesters are taken into custody
    17.6, in Lice (Diyarbakir), a 70-year old woman, Rehime Pehlivan, claims to have been tortured during 15-day detention. She says three other people detained together with herself too were subjected to torture.
    17.6, in Idil (Sirnak), a former mayor of Assyrian origin, Sükrü Tutas is shot dead by unidentified gunmen. Same day, Veysi Benlice in Diyarbakir and Ziver Özdemir in Batman fall victim of political murder.
    17.6, in Diyarbakir, Musa Günes dies  and two other prayers are wounded during the explosion of a bomb placed in a mosque.
    18.6, in Batman, Ahmet Arik is shot dead at an armed attack.
    20.6, the Socialist Power Party (SIP) announces that its two members, Ilker Pinar and Volkan Yalcinkoklu were tortured after their detention on June 14.
    20.6, the prosecutor of the Ankara SSC starts a court action against 17 alleged members of the Islamist organization IBDA-C. The defendants face imprisonment of up to 15 years each.
    20.6, in Idil, the headman of the village Kalaz, Sehabettin Elcioglu is shot dead by unidentified gunmen.
    21.6, during recent operations, security forces have taken into custody nine alleged members of the Revolutionary Communists' Union of Turkey (TIKB) in Istanbul and eight people in Adana.
    21.6, Sehmuz Öncel who was wounded last week during an armed attack in Diyarbakir passes away as he is being taken to a hospital in Ankara.
    22.6, in Nusaybin, unidentified gunmen shoot dead a minibus driver, Ali Özdemir, and wound two passengers.
    23.6, the Istanbul SSC sentences the Chairman of the Aviation Workers' Trade Union (Hava-Is), Atilay Aycin, and lawyer Esber Yagmurdereli to a 20-month imprisonment and a fine of TL 250 million each for their speeches at a meeting in Istanbul.  By the same sentence, they are deprived of the right to perform their professions.
    24.6, in Manisa, teacher Taner Yenice claims to have been tortured by ten policemen after being taken into custody.
    24.6, in Cay (Afyon), Osman Köksen claims to have been tortured for 24 hours during his detention at a gendarmery station.
    24.6, in Izmir, five officials of the Socialist Power Party (SIP), Hamdi Samancilar, Hayrettin Akbas, Faik Bicer, Recai Gün and Semanur Özel,  are sentenced by the Izmir SSC to 20 months in prison and TL 333 million in fine each for a political tract they distributed in January.
    26.6, Kamil Hulak and Abdullah Sayin are found assassinated near the village Dalda in Bitlis.
    28.6, the former chairman of the defunct DEP is sentenced by the Ankara SSC to four years in prison and TL 500 million in fine for his statements in Iraq and Germany.
    28.6, a Dev-Sol defendant, Selmani Özcan is sentenced by the Ankara SSC to capital punishment.
    29.6, in two trials against the alleged PKK militants, the Istanbul SSC sentences two defendants to imprisonments of up to three years and nine months and the Kayseri SSC sentences four defendants to terms of up to 12 years and six months.
    30.6, the imam of the Doganli village of Mardin, Mehmet Ali Kilic, is assassinated during an armed attack.
    1.7, the Ankara SSC sentences five alleged members of the Communist Labour Party of Turkey-Leninist (TKEP-L) to life prison each.
    1.7, in Nusaybin, a series of armed attacks result in the death of Hamdin Kaya, Zafer Yildirim, Abdulmecit Kaya, Yusuf Yagiz and Sabri Arar.
    1.7, security forces raiding the Pasayurdu village in Erzincan take 20 villagers into custody.
    2.7, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Ahmet Özcan in Mus.
    2.7, village protectors raiding the Aktepe hamlet shoot dead Bayram Tekin, nephew of Özgür Gündem Diyarbakir representative Salih Tekin.
    3.7, Aydogan Ozcan, Yüksel Özcan, Durmaz Deli and Göksal Oguz claim to have been tortured at the Gayrettepe Police Station for three days after their detention on June 28.
    3.7, a meeting to commemorate the victims of the Sivas Massacre of July 2, 1994, is dispersed by police using force and wounding six people. In Izmir, another commemoration meeting on the same anniversary is forbidden by the Governor.
    4.7, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Hasan Topbik and Ihsan Karabulut in Batman.
    5.7, in Aydin, lawyers Hülya Ücpinar, Mustafa Ufacik and Mustafa Alp are beaten by gendarmes at the Justice Palace and later during a visit to their clients detained at the Aydin Prison.
    5.7, in Istanbul, a worker named Ali Riza Kartal claims to have been tortured at the Icerenkôoy Police Station after being detained as putting posters on walls.
    5.7, in Gebze, a group of workers carrying on a protest action was dispersed by police using force and four of them seriously wounded.
    5.7, in Hakkari, Recep Yasar, Behcet Yasar and Fikret Kaya are found assassinated on the highway Yüksekova-Semdinli.
    6.7, a new trial against five alleged PKK members begins at the Istanbul SSC. The prosecutor demands capital punishment for four of the defendants. One of them, Serif Mercan had committed suicide a few months ago at the Bursa Prison.
    6.7, the former chairman of the Izmir Municipal Employees' Trade Union (Tüm Bel Sen), Ikram Mihyas who was kidnapped on July 5 is found assassinated.
    6.7, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Cemil Boga and wound Vedat Boga in Kiziltepe.
    8.7, in Gebze, a new protest action by a group of municipal workers is dispersed by police using force and wounding more than 100 people.  After the operation, 20 workers are taken into custody and a local tribunal decides to stop the protest action.
    8.7, in Diyarbakir, unidentified gunmen shoot dead Abdülkadir Yücel.
    9.7, in Batman, Halil Basma who was kidnapped by unidentified assailants is found assassinated under a bridge.
    9.7, security forces have detained nine alleged PKK militants during recent operations.
    9.7, security forces raiding a house in Nusaybin shoot dead Semsettin Kaplan and detain his wife.
    10.7, a member of the Human Rights Association (IHD), Yelda Özcan claims to have been tortured after his detention on July 4 in Istanbul.
    11.7, the Izmir police announces the arrest of 28 alleged PKK militants during operations since the beginning of July.
    11.7, in Nusaybin, unidentified assailants shoot dead Mehmet Emin Algin and destroy later his house.
    12.7, the trial of Arif Hikmet Iyidogan, accused of anti-militarist activities, begins at the Military Tribunal of General Staff. Facing imprisonment of up to one year, Iyidogan is being detained at the Mamak Military Prison.
    13.7, a series of police operations in Adana, Mersin and Tarsus result in the arrest of about 40 people for underground activities.
    13.7, the Malatya SSC sentences two members of the Workers' and Peasants' Liberation Army of Turkey (TIKKO) to life prison and two other to imprisonments of up to 12 years and six months.
    13.7, security forces raiding the Veskan village in Yüksekova put on fire two houses after having  shot dead Feysel Aslan and arrested eight villagers.
    14.7, Özgür Ülke reports that security forces, during last one-month operations, depopulated 24 villages in the Cukurca district of Hakkari province. About 12 thousand villagers were searching shelter in the neighbouring towns and villages or in Northern Iraq.
    15.7, in Izmir, security forces carrying out a series of repressive operations arrest IHD officials Ali Aslan and Naile Erogluer, Pir Sultan Abdal Cultural Association's Chairman Haydar Arslan and five other people.
    15.7, five alleged PKK members are sentenced by the Ankara SSC to prison terms of up to 15 years.
    15.7, in Cizre, an imam named Süleyman Turgut who was kidnapped by two unidentified persons on July 13 is found assassinated.
    15.7, during a raid on the 3rd and 6th wings of the Malatya E Type Prison, 40 political detainees are wounded, nine being severely.
    16.7, in Nusaybin, Ibrahim Cekin falls victim of a political assassination.
    18.7, in Ankara, a youth named Irfan Barat Efe claims to have been tortured after his detention on July 16. The Forensic Medicine Institute certifies his incapability of working for 15 days because of the torture.
    18.7, during the police operation within the last ten days, 15 people have reportedly been detained on charges of being Dev-Sol members.
    18.7, the security forces that launched an operation upon gunshots heard in the Lice district of Diyarbakir burn and destroy more than 100 houses, shops and sheds. Haci Tahir Kozat (70) was suffocated to death, two youths and a number of animals are killed.
    19.7, Muzaffer Yildirim who was wounded in Nusaybin on June 29 by unidentified people, lost his life at the hospital.
    20.7, upon the call of their trade unions, hundred thousands of workers and civil servants stage a one-day warning act in overall Turkey to protest the government. They either do not go to work or do not work at their work places for periods ranging from one hour to eight. In Istanbul, a group of 500 marching workers is dispersed by the police under beating and 18 of them detained.
    21.7, Abdulaziz Saltan and Yusuf Baskan claim to have been tortured after being detained by police in Istanbul.
    22.7, the Diyarbakir SSC prosecutor starts a legal proceeding against the mayor of Bingöl, Selahattin Aydar, and the local chairman of the Diyarbakir National Youth Foundation, Bedri Baran, for instigating the people to hostility in their post-electoral speeches.
    22.7, thirteen alleged members of the Hizbullah organization are indicted by the Diyarbakir SSC Prosecutor for a series of terrorist actions. Eight of the defendants face capital punishment.
    22.7, in Nusaybin, Süleyman Yaman falls victim of a political murder.
    23.7, three farmers, Fadil Toptan, Abdurrahman Arikan and Muhittin Tekin are found assassinated in Besiri (Batman).
    23.7, in Yüksekova, security forces opening fire on the people in the street shoot dead a woman named Perihan Soylu, wound two persons and destroyed four houses and 12 shops.
    24.7, DEP member Kerim Tek who was kidnapped on July 22 by unidentified assailants is found assassinated near the Gökcebag town. He had been taken into custody for few times on charges of aiding the PKK. Three bullet holes and torture traces are discovered on his body.
    25.7, during a ceremony on the occasion of the assassination of trade unionist Kenan Budak on July 25, 1980, police detain ten participants.
    25.7, security forces raiding two houses in Istanbul detain more than 20 people among them are also two children.
    26.7, the Leather Workers' Trade Union announces that five of the ten people detained during the commemoration of Kenan Budak one day ago were subjected torture during their interrogation. Their names: Murat Emin Özdemir, Berna Bozkurt, Oya Kosar, Sibel Altinok and Bülent Catar.
    27.7, a youth named Muzaffer Karagöz claims to have been tortured for fifteen hours at the Umraniye Police Station in Istanbul.
    27.7, the Diyarbakir SSC begins to try five people accused of PKK activities. Two of the defendants face capital punishment.
    28.7, in Kayseri, peasant Osman Akin who was detained by gendarmes on charges of insulting the State is found dead in his cell.
    28.7, in Adana, Fehmi Saygili claims to have been tortured at the PTT Police Station for having participated in Kurdish protest actions.
    28.7, unidentified assailants raiding a house at the Aralik Village in Bismil shoot dead an 11-year old boy and wound two persons.
    30.7, Ali Vural, in Diyarbakir, and Celal Bulut, in Nusaybin, are shot dead by unidentified gunmen.
    31.7, in Silvan, unidentified assailants beat Tahir Güvenc to death. In Hasankeyf, health worker Hasan Keles is shot death during a raid on his house.


    According to the information given by the Human Rights Association (IHD), the following intellectuals were in prison or under arrest by the end of July 1994:

Journalists in Prison

    Osman Günes (Emek Dünyasi), six months,  in Bayrampasa Prison -Istanbul;
Hidir Ates (Odak), six months, Bayrampasa ; Zana Sezen (Azadi), six months, Bursa; Hidir Batusal (Özgür Gelecek), six months, Erzurum; Tuncay Atmaca (Emek), 20 months, Urla; Naile Tuncer (Devrimci Proletarya), six months,  Canakkale; Besir Günden (Azadi), Mus; Ergün Gümgüm (Hevdem), six months, Buca; Hidir Gülyildar (Gercek), six months; Fethiye Peksen (Devrimci Cözüm), Bayrampasa; Hikmet Cetin (Deng), six months, Bayrampasa; Gülperi Türüz (Alinteri), six months, Antakya; Mustafa Cubuk (Emek), one year, Bayrampasa; Kenan Kalyon (Toplumsal Dayanisma), six months, Bayrampasa; Süleyman Bakirman (Tavir), Adana-Kürkcüler; Deniz Gezen (Mücadele), Izmit; Cemal Uc (Mücadele), Tunceli; Hüseyin Solak (Mücadele), Malatya; Veysel Sahin (Mücadele), Bursa; Necati Önder (Mücadele), Malatya; Murat Kirsoy (Mücadele), Malatya; Özcan Yildiz (Mücadele), Malatya; Nizamettin Karaciger (Özgür Gündem), Mus; Ercan Arslan (Özgür Gündem), Adiyaman; Kemal Sahin (Özgür Gündem), Bayrampasa; Sabri Bölek (Özgür Gündem), Erzurum; Cemile Yürümez (Emekci Kadinlar), Bayrampasa; Fahrettin Dülger (Alternatif), Sagmalcilar; Nebahat Polat (Özgür Gelecek), Ankara; M. Emin Unay (Özgür Gündem), Buca; Salih Tekin (Özgür Gündem), Mardin; Hasan Deger (Özgür Gündem), Diyarbakir ; Meral Tikiz (Özgür Gündem), Erzurum; Botan Önen (Özgür Gündem), Diyarbakir; Cafer Cakmak (Mücadele), Bayrampasa; Emine Serhat (Özgür Gündem), Erzurum; Ahmet Önal (Newroz Atesi), Kirklareli; Ramazan Öcalan (Özgür Gündem), Urfa; M. Emin Baser (Özgür Gündem), Bayrampasa; Hanim Harman (Mücadele), Malatya; Hamdullah Akyol (Medya Günesi), Diyarbakir; Mehmet Kesli (Newroz), Bayrampasa; Hasan Özgün (Özgür Gündem),  Diyarbakir; Müslim Yilmaz (Newroz), Bayrampasa; Mehmet Dönmez (Özgür Ülke), Bayrampasa; Özdemir Toprak (Özgür Gündem),  Bayrampasa; Hüseyin Tekin (Emegin Bayragi), Bayrampasa; Selman Cimen (Serketin), Bayrampasa; Bahattin Sevim (Özgür Gündem), Mus; Hayrettin Dündar (Özgür Gündem), Elazig; Mustafa Kemal Akkaya (Özgür Ülke), Bayrampasa; Hekimoglu Ismail (Zaman), Sile; Mustafa Kaplan (Yeni Asya), Buca; Türker Alp (Özgür Gündem), Bayrampasa; Mustafa Demirdag (Özgür Gelecek), Bayrampasa; Ismail Günes (Özgür Gündem), Erzurum; Ibrahim Özen (Devrimci Cözüm), Gebze; Kenan Topalak (Devrimci Cözüm), Gebze; Bektas Cansever (Devrimci Cözüm), Gebze; Sakine Fidan (Mücadele), Diyarbakir; Burhan Gardas (Mücadele), Ankara; Ilhan Özdemir (Özgür Halk), Malatya; Salih Özcelik (Azadi), Ankara; Özgür Arslan (Özgür Gündem), Bayrampasa; Özkan Kilic (Yeni Ülke), 20 months, Bayrampasa; Selcuk Tas (S.Y. Kurtulus), Ankara; Metin Dag (Özgür Gündem), Diyarbakir; Sadi Etdöger (Özgür Gündem), Erzurum; Suha Soysal Demirci (Özgür Ülke), Bayrampasa; Murat Yesilirmak (Medya Günesi), Bayrampasa; Nalan Alici (Özgür Ülke), Diyarbakir; Mehmet Kesli (Newroz), Bayrampasa; Yemliha Kaya (Yoksul Halkin Gücü), Bayrampasa; Asli Günes (Hedef), Ankara; Umit Erdogdu (Demokrat), 20 months; Nazim Taban (Emegin Bayragi), five months; Isik Yurtcu (Özgür Gündem), 11 months; Adnan Akfirat (Aydinlik), 20 months; Emel Kapilan (Özgür Gündem),  under arrest; Mustafa Kemal Begüm (Kurtulus), under arrest; Elanur Kaya (Hedef), under arrest; Günay Güler (Alternatif), under arrest; Mehmet Sah Yildiz (Özgür Gündem), under arrest; Halim Yurtoglu (Mücadele), under arrest; Aysel Bölücek (Mücadele), under arrest; Serdar Gelir (Mücadele), under arrest; Özgür Güdenoglu (Mücadele), under arrest; Ahmet Fethi Yildirim (Toplumsal Dayanisma), under arrest; Emel Atici (Hedef), under arrest; Nergis Gülmez (Özgür Gelecek), under arrest; Vatan Dinc (Emegin Bayragi), under arrest; Mehmet Efe (Özgür Halk), under arrest; Hacay Yilmaz (Emek), two years, Buca ;
Journalists Sentenced and Wanted
    Hacer Temirkan (Devrimci Proletarya); Sedat Karatas (Azadi); Kamil Ermis (Deng); Rifat Sefali (Vatan Günesi); Fatma Yazici (2000e Dogru); Hale Soysü (2000e Dogru); Celik Malkoc (Yeni Cözüm); Yasar Kaya (Özgür Gündem)

Authors and Artists In Prison

    Günay Aslan, two years, Mugla(Köycegiz); Ahmet Zeki Okcuoglu, two years, Gemlik; Hasan Bildirici, two years, France.; Edip Polat, three years, Buca-Izmir; Ismail Besikci, 14 years and six months, Ankara ; Fikret Baskaya, two years, Haymana ;  Haluk Gerger, 20 months, Haymana ; Mustafa Kaplan, one year, Izmit ; Mehdi Zana, two years, Ankara ; Naile Tuncer, two years, Bayrampasa ; Munir Ceylan, 20 months, Tekirdag/Saray ; Mehmet Cetin, two years, Gemlik ; Ömer Agin, two years, Bayrampasa; Numan Bektas, two years, to be imprisoned soon; Kemal Sahir Gürel (musician), 20 months, Kesan; Metin Bakirci (actor), Bayrampasa; Engin Günay, 20 months.
Publishers in Prison

    Aysenur Zarakolu (Belge Publications), five months, Bayrampasa ; Sirri Öztürk (Sorun Publications), five months, Babaeski ; Nabi Barut (Zagros Publications), six months, Bayrampasa ; Selim Okcuoglu (Doz Publications), 20 months, Gemlik ; Recep Marasli (Komal), five months, Istanbul.
Publishers To Be Prisoned Soon

    Ilyas Burak (Melsa Publications), five months.; Zeynel Abidin Kizilyaprak (Pele Sor Publications), five months; Ünsal Öztürk (Yurt Publications), 20 months.

Publishing Houses Under Prosecution

    Alan, Belge, Basak, Berhem, Berfin, Cep, Deng, Doz, Dönüsüm, Evrensel, Firat, Haziran, Iletisim, Komal, Pencere, Melsa, Med, Özge, Pelesor, Umut, Yaba, Yurt, Zagros.

    Among the authors imprisoned in Turkey, Sociologist Ismail Besikci, of Turkish origin,  has been for over twenty years the target N°1 of the State terrorism.  After the two military coups, in 1971 and 1980, he was arrested for his works for defending the fundamental rights of the Kurdish population and remained for years in prison.
    After the adoption of the Anti-Terror Law, he has been indicted  81 times on charges of separatist propaganda by the State Security Courts for each of more than thirty books and different articles he wrote.
    Besikci is currently serving in the Ankara Prison a part of 14 years and six months of his sentences ratified by the Court of Cassation.  The higher court has also ratified a total fine of TL 850 million against Besikci.
    With the last condemnations in June and July,  the total punishment to which Ismail Besikci has been sentenced  by the SSC  in 22 cases until the end of July 1994  rises to 55 years and 3 months in prison and TL 3 billion 534 million in fine.
    In addition to these condemnations, Besikci is still being tried in 59 other cases by the SSC and facing 118 years in prison and TL 14 billion 750 thousand in fine.
    Since he does not have financial possibilities to pay the fines, according to the Anti-Terror Law, these fines will be commuted to imprisonment and the total of his prison terms will reach 405 years.
    The following are the last court decisions against Besikci and his publishers:
    7.6, Besikci is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to two years in prison and TL 250 million in fine for his article appeared in the periodical Yeni Insan. The editor of the review, Levent Aslan too is sentenced to six months in prison and TL 50 million in fine for separatist propaganda.
    14.6,  Besikci is sentenced by the Ankara SSC to two years in prison and TL 250 million in fine for a book entitled The Besikci Case from the point of view of university autonomy and democratic society principles. The director of the Yurt Publishing House having published the said book, Ünsal Öztürk too is sentenced to six months in prison and TL 100 million in fine for separatist propaganda.
    16.6, Besikci is sentenced by the Ankara SSC to a total of four years in prison and TL 500 million in fine for his two books entitled An Intellectual, An organisation and the Kurdish Question and On the Kurdish Society. The director of the Yurt Publishing House having published the said book, Ünsal Öztürk too is sentenced to one year in prison and TL 100 million in fine for separatist propaganda.
    21.6, Besikci is again sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to two years in prison and TL 100 million in fine for one of his articles published by the weekly Yeni Ülke on October 25, 1992.  The tribunal also decides to ban Yeni Ülke's publication for one month, though the review has not been published for more than one year.
    30.6, Besikci is again sentenced by the Ankara SSC to a total of ten years and four months in prison and TL 416 million in fine for his 15 different books. 
    6.7, the Court of Cassation ratifies a four-year imprisonment and TL 350 million in fine against sociologist Ismail Besikci for his article entitled Open Letter to the Chairman of the Constitutional Court and his book entitled The Rise of Consciousness.     13.7, the Court of Cassation ratifies a two-year imprisonment and TL 250 million in fine against sociologist Ismail Besikci for his book entitled The Kurds Recognising Themselves.  The higher court also ratifies a 6-month imprisonment and TL 50 million in fine against the publisher of the book, Ünsal Öztürk.


    Mrs. Ayse Nur Zarakolu, director of Belge Publishing House, has been in the Bayrampasa Prison of Istanbul since May 4, 1994, for five-month imprisonment inflicted upon her being publisher of Ismail Besikci's book titled The Republican People's Party Program (1931) and Kurdish Problem.
    From the prison, she released the following press declaration:
    "I am present here today by reason of thought being deemed as 'crime', furthermore being 'terror crime.' After the writers, the publishers are also preparing their suitcases not for new studies and works, but for prisons. Today Turkey's 'democratisation' mean this! A convoy of the writers and publishers put in prisons. After me, almost ten publishers will be put behind iron bars.
    "In Turkey books and publishers are quite opposite to a new attack spell. Today, there is no freedom of thought, one of the most basic acquisitions of the humanity in Turkey.
    "It is absurd for us to expect such a thing of the State which is in the modality and habit of violating this freedom.
    "The only contribution of the so called civil governments to the 'democratisation' is to begin to prosecute book publishers. Nowadays, as a contribution of the 9th Panel of the Court of Cassation, publishing house owners are being sentenced to imprisonment, and such imprisonments being approved.
    "In accordance with their own Anti-Terror Law, newspaper and magazine owners were not subject to imprisonment, but only to pay a fine. Now, imprisonment was begun to be inflicted upon publishers printing such books. This is a law scandal, because publishers are being deemed exactly editor in chief. A parliamentary bill providing that publishing house owners too will be sentenced to imprisonment was recently submitted to be discussed by the Parliament. It is  not known whether such a modification in the Anti-Terror Law  drafted by DYP deputy Baki Tug will be approved or not. Without waiting the Parliament's decision, the State Security Courts and the Court of Cassation, putting themselves in the place of the Parliament, allude to a crime not included in the law and began to apply it to publishing house owners.
    "Yes, in Turkey, the freedom of opinion cannot be expected to be effected by the State. Under these conditions how will writer express him/herself, explain his/her thoughts? How will the universal culture richness be translated? How will information about the present struggles for freedom be communicated?
    "Today the media are withdrawing the programs which they announced from the broadcast upon an order by any superior ones. But publishers must not behave in accord with such 'orders from above' and must give life to freedom of opinion. They must do what the State does not do, even impedes. They must present their all possibilities to the writer who wants to explain his/her thought. If the cost thereof is imprisonment, they must bear it.
    "If the prohibition for Nazim Hikmet's books was abrogated today, this is not a grace of the Minister of Culture, but thanks to the publishers who died in the court halls, such as Mehmet Ali Ermis and the valiant readers who were interrogated for many days for carrying a single poem of Nazim Hikmet in their pockets.
    "If the socialist literature is freely published today, this is thanks to such as Ilhan Erdost who was killed by brutally beating under custody. If the opposite publishing is surviving today in spite of all pressures, this is thanks to the publishers who make their publishing continue under the extraordinary SS decrees and struggle against the official ideology and taboos.
    "We will make this 'free' publishing tradition continue not yielding to any  limitation with taboos and official ideology, and act as a protector of thought, expression and creation freedom. Not yielding to censorship and self-censorship, our publishing house shall continue to be open all writers who wish to freely express their own thoughts.
I believe that we are right and will win."

    1.6, two political magazines, Gercek N°9 and Ocak, are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist and anti-militarist propaganda.
    1.6, the director of Doz Publishing House, Selim Okcuoglu is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to a fine of TL 50 million for having published a book entitled The Turkish Industry in Kurdistan.
    2.6, the Istanbul SSC sentences five writers, Sungur Savran, Ali Riza Tura, Mehmet Sadi Ozansu, Hasan San and Mehmet Yalcin Kayalar, to two years in prison and TL 100 million in fine each for their articles published by the review Cagri. They are accused of having violated the Anti-Terror Law.
    4.6, the responsible editor of Özgür Ülke, Suha Soysal Demirci is placed under arrest by the Istanbul SSC for the articles he published in the paper's 12 different issues on charges of separatist propaganda. Same day, in Urfa, two distributors of Özgür Ülke, Mehmet Askin and Ibrahim Nas are taken into police custody.
    7.6, the daily Özgür Ülke announces that 34 out of its 39 issues since the beginning of its publication on April 28, 1994, have been confiscated by the Istanbul SSC on charges of making separatist and anti-militarist propaganda and publishing communiqués of some outlawed organisations. Within the same period, the paper's two editors, Kemal Akkaya and Suha Soysal Demirci, correspondent Mehmet Emin Ünay, manager Türker Alp and driver Mehmet Dönmez have been arrested by court decision.
    6.6, two political reviews, Denge Azadi N°3 and Gercek N°9, as well as the first issue of a newsletter entitled Haklar ve Özgürlükler (Rights and Freedoms) are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    6.6, during a concert by the Musical Group Yorum in Gaziantep, more than 50 listeners are taken into police custody for having shouted political slogans. When another group of listeners starts to protest the operation, police disperse them by opening fire into the air.
    7.6, one of the former editors of the defunct Özgür Gündem, Seyh Davud Karadag is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to four years and eight months in prison and TL 371 million 683 thousand in fine for four news reports and two articles he published on June 16, 1993.  The newspaper's owner, Yasar Kaya too is sentenced to TL 363 million in fine on charge of separatism. Although Özgür Gündem has not been published since April 1994 because of heavy pressures, the tribunal also decides to ban its publication for one month.
    7.6, writer Mehmet Bayrak is sentenced by the Ankara SSC to a 6-month imprisonment and a TL 100 million fine for his book entitled Cagdas Kürt Destanlari (Contemporary Kurdish Legends).
    7.6, condemned  for having published a book entitled The Failure of Paradigms, the director of the Doz Publishing House, Lawyer Selim Okcuoglu is arrested for serving his 5-month imprisonment. Okcuoglu is later sent to the Gemlik Prison where his brother, Ahmet Zeki Okcuoglu, is currently serving his prison term for an article. As for the author of The Failure of Paradigms, Professor Fikret Baskaya, he is currently serving his 20-month imprisonment for this book at the Haymana Prison.
    7.6, the editor of the periodical Medya Günesi, Murat Yesilirmak, is arrested by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda in some articles he published on May 16, 1994.
    8.6, two periodicals, Emegin Bayragi N°118 and Mücadele N°97 are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda and praising outlawed organizations.
    9.6, in Diyarbakir, a distributor of the daily Özgür Ülke, Zafer Tüzün, and his 16-year old assistant are taken into custody. Another distributor in Batman, Ismail Agaya, has reportedly disappeared since May 29  when he was taken by three unidentified assailants.
    12.6, the editor of the weekly Gercek, Pelin Sener is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to one year in prison and TL 125 million in fine by virtue of  the ATL. The tribunal also decides to ban the review's publication for one month.
    10.6, the Istanbul SSC confiscates the latest issues of the periodicals Liseli Genclik, Emegin Bayragi, Denge Azadi and Toplumsal Dayanisma for separatist and agitating publication.
    13.6, the editor of the Kurdish review Welat, Mazhar Günbat is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to two years in prison and TL 320 thousand in fine for instigating hostility in the population. The tribunal also decides to ban the review's publication for one month. During the trial, Günbat insisted to defend himself in Kurdish language, but the tribunal refused this demand by claiming that the defendant wishes to speak in an incomprehensible language.
    14.6, the trial of eleven journalists of the defunct Özgür Gündem, arrested on December 10, 1993, begins at the Istanbul SSC.  Chief editor Gurbetelli Ersöz, chief correspondent Gülten Kisanak, Ferda Cetin, Ali Riza Halis, Faysal Dagli, Mahmut Dogan, Mehtap Gürbüz, Yurdusev Özsökmenler, Mehmet Balamir, Müslim Yücel, Hüseyin Olgun and Ferhat Tugan are accused of being PKK members and turning the newspaper into a PKK organ. The newspaper's owner Yasar Kaya too is mentioned as defendant although he is currently in Europe.  At the end of the first trial, Gurbetelli Ersöz and Ali Riza Halis who have been under arrest for six months, are released.
    15.6, a cartoonist of Özgür Gündem, Dogan Güzel is sentenced by a criminal court of Istanbul  to a 10-month imprisonment and a fine of TL 1.5 million for one of his drawings published on September 22, 1993.  The tribunal also sentences the newspaper's editor, Besim Döner, to the same punishments and decides to ban Özgür Gündem's publication for fifteen days, though the newspaper had already stopped its publication since April.
    15.6, the Istanbul SSC sentences a former editor of the defunct Özgür Gündem, Erkan Aydin, to a fine of TL 53 million 322 thousand for having published an interview with PKK leader Öcalan. The tribunal also decides to ban the newspaper's publication for ten days.
    15.6, Chairman of the Mesopotamia Cultural Centre (MKM) Ibrahim Gürbüz is placed under arrest by the Istanbul SSC for his article published in Özgür Ülke on May 26, 1994.
    15.5, the Istanbul SSC confiscates the weekly Nokta for an article on the Islamist organisation IBDA-C.
    16.6, the editor of the periodical Özgür Halk, Emine Buyrukcan is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to six months in prison and TL 50 million in fine for the articles she published on November 15, 1993. The tribunal also sentences the periodical's owner, Haydar Demir, to a fine of TL 100 million and decides to ban the review's publication for one month.
    16.6, the editor of the periodical Newroz, Mehmet Kesli is put under arrest by the Istanbul SSC for contravening the ATL.
    17.6, the editor of the periodical Gencligin Sesi, Seher Karatas is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to 6-month imprisonment and a fine of TL 100 million. The tribunal also decides to ban the review's publication for ten days.
    17.6, the Secretary General of the Communist Labour Party of Turkey (TKEP), Teslim Töre is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to 20-month imprisonment and a fine of TL 333 million by virtue of Article 8 of the ATL.
    18.6, the last issues of the periodicals Hedef, Halkin Gücü and Devrimci Alternatif are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    19.6, Diyarbakir correspondent of the daily Özgür Ülke, Nalan Atici is taken into police custody as returning home.
    21.6, one of the former editors of the defunct Özgür Gündem, Seyh Davud Karadag is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to two years in prison and TL 250 million in fine. At the same trial, the owner of the newspaper, Yasar Kaya too is sentenced to a fine of TL 121 million. The tribunal also decides to ban the defunct journal's publication for one month. In four other trials, Yasar Kaya is sentenced to a total of TL 753 million in fine for different articles.
    22.6, publisher Burhan Günel is sentenced by the Ankara SSC to six months in prison and TL 50 million in fine for having published a book entitled The Law of Resistance and Defeat. The author of the book, Numan Bektas had already been sentenced to a 20-month imprisonment and a fine of TL 208 million.
    22.6, Diyarbakir correspondent of the daily Özgür Ülke, Nalan Atici who was taken into police custody three days ago is placed under arrest by the Diyarbakir SSC.
    22.6, the periodical Emegin Bayragi N°120 is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    23.6, two writers of the periodical Pir Sultan Abdal, Ibrahim Halit Elci and Kemal Altintas who are under arrest, are sentenced by the Ankara SSC to two years in prison and 250 million in fine each. The tribunal also sentences the review's editor, Metin Kuzugüdenlioglu, to a 6-month imprisonment and a fine of TL 2 billion, publisher Murtaza Demir and printer Burhan Günel to a 6-month imprisonment and a fine of TL 5 billion each.
    23.6, the Ankara SSC sentences Mustafa Pala to two years in prison and TL 250 million in fine and Aydin Dogan to six months in prison and TL 100 million in fine for having published  a book containing interviews with journalist Musa Anter, victim of a political murder.
    23.6, two periodicals, Özgür Gelecek N°29 and Partizan N°18, are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda and praising an outlawed organization.
    24.6, the former editor of Özgür Gündem, Seyh Davut Karadag is again sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to a total of four-year imprisonment and a fine of TL 682 million.  The tribunal also decides to ban the defunct newspaper's publication for 25 days. Same day, the newspaper's owner, Yasar Kaya too is sentenced to a total of TL 743 million in fine.
    24.6, the Ankara SSC sentences the director of the Yurt Publishing House, Ünsal Öztürk, to two years in prison and TL 100 million in fine for having published PKK leader Öcalan's book entitled The Fascism of September 12 and the PKK's Resistance.
    24.6, the Istanbul SSC confiscates the periodical Yeni Demokrat Genclik N°21 and journalist Faysal Dagli's book entitled Birakuji (Fratricide).
    24.6, famous Turkish humorist Aziz Nesin is tried by the Criminal Court of Izmir for a speech  he gave at a meeting in December 1993.  Under the accusation of insulting the Turkish Republic and its governments, Nesin faces a prison term of up to five years by virtue of Article 159 of the Turkish Penal Code.
    27.6, journalist and author Haluk Gerger is imprisoned in Ankara for serving his 20-month prison term. He had been condemned by the Ankara SSC for a message he sent to a meeting by virtue of Article 8 of the ATL.
    28.6, two journalists of the daily Zaman, editor Servet Engin and columnist Mustafa Güner Yazgan are sentenced by a penal Court in Ankara to three months and 15 days in prison and TL 2 million in fine each for having insulted the Justice Minister. In another trial against the same newspaper, publisher Servet Engin and columnist Varol Bektas are sentenced to similar punishments.
    29.6, the editor of the periodical Newroz Atesi, Nedime Tunc is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to four years in prison and TL 550 million in fine. The tribunal also decided to ban the periodical's publication for one month.
    29.6, three periodicals, Denge Azadi N°6, Newroz N°19 and Kizil Bayrak N°3 are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda and praising outlawed  organizations.
    1.7, a special issue of the periodical Hedef is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    3.7, a concert in solidarity with the musical group Yorum, subject to State terrorism, is forbidden by the governor of Istanbul.  Police disperse the crowd gathering in front of the concert hall in protest against the decision and detain 20 people including Özgür Ülke correspondent Hüseyin Inan and two lawyers, Metin Narin and Mustafa Coban.
    4.7, two periodicals, Denge Azadi N°7 and Kizil Bayrak N°3, are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    5.7, the director of the Zagros Publishing House, Nabi Barut is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to one year in prison and 5L 250 million in fine for having published a book containing the articles of PKK leader Öcalan.
    5.7, the editor of the weekly Gercek, Pelin Sener is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to six months in prison and TL 50 million in fine for publishing an article entitled An Intellectual's Confessions. In another trial against Gercek, the former publisher of the periodical, Kamil Tekin Sürek is sentences to a fine of TL 50 million.
    6.7, the Istanbul office of the Islamist review Beklenen Vakit is destroyed with the explosion of a bomb placed by unidentified people.
    9.7, the Kütahya chairman of the Human Rights Association (IHD), Seydi Bayram is sentenced by the Konya SSC to 20 months in prison and TL 208 million in fine for a press release containing the word Kurdistan that he issued in 1993.
    9.7, Kurdish author and publisher Recep Marasli is taken into custody after a police raid on his home in Istanbul. He is accused of separatist propaganda in an interview aired by a private TV in 1993 and in his book entitled The Defence at the Diyarbakir Rizgari Trial.
One of the two persons detained together with the author, Nurcan Balci is later taken to hospital. The Human Rights Association claims that Balci was subjected to torture.
    10.7, the last issue of the periodical Denge Azadi is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    12.7, a former editor of the defunct Özgür Gündem, Erkan Aydin is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to 20 months in prison and TL 208 million 333 thousand in fine by virtue of the ATL. The tribunal also decides to ban the publication of Özgür Gündem for ten days though the newspaper is already closed.
    12.7, the periodical Hedef N° 33 is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for an article on the Circassian Question.
    15.7, publisher Sirri Öztürk who is serving his five-month prison term for having published The Anthology of Prison Poems 1980-1990 is hospitalised on a heart attack in Babaeski Prison.
    16.7, Diyarbakir correspondent of Özgür Ülke, Necmiye Aslanoglu is taken into custody by police after being beaten in the street.
    19.7, the last issues of the periodicals Denge Azadi, Aydinlik, Genclik Yildizi, Deng and Halkin Gücü are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    20.7, the chief editor of the periodical Medya Günesi, Vedat Aydin is arrested in Istanbul. He will be tried by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    20.7, an Özgür Ülke correspondent,  Yüksel Diker is arrested in Van for aiding the PKK and harbouring its members.
    20.7, the editor of the periodical Emegin Bayragi, Cem Özen is put under arrest by the Istanbul SSC by virtue of the ATL.
    21.7, one of the editors of the defunct Özgür Gündem, Seyh Davut Karadag is sentenced again by the Istanbul SSC to a fine of TL 121 million 257 thousand for some articles he published. The tribunal also sentence the newspaper's owner, Yasar Kaya to a fine of TL 242 million 514 thousand and to close the newspaper for fifteen days. In another case, the SSC fines Yasar Kaya to TL 273 million 627 thousand and decides to close the newspaper for 20 days.
    21.7, the chief editor of the periodical Özgür Bilim, Medeni Ayhan is sentenced to by the Ankara SSC two years in prison and TL 250 million in fine for using the word "Kurdistan" in articles. The publishing board members of the review, Riza Dogan, Abdurrahim Kocbin, Haydar Karayel, Cengiz Yasar and Mehmet Tanrikulu too are each sentenced two years in prison and a fine of TL 250 million.
    21.7, Kurdish author and publisher Recep Marasli who was detained on July 9 during a raid on his house in Istanbul was placed under arrest by the Istanbul SSC on allegation that he is the leader of an organization named Freedom Party of Kurdistan (PRK).. Along with Marasli, two other persons named Ergül Kiyak and Yüksel Bekiroglu too are placed under arrest. 
    22.7, Özgür Ülke editor Halil Kalkilic is placed under arrest by the Istanbul SSC for a number of articles and news he published in the newspaper's July issues. He will be tried under the ATL.
    25.7, two periodicals, Denge Azadi N°10 and Yeni Demokrat Genclik N°22 are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    26.7, the Istanbul SSC decides to confiscate five periodicals, Newroz N°23, Gercek N°17, Özgür Gelecek N°31, Ekspres N°26 and Gencligin Sesi N°14, on charges of separatist and anti-army propaganda.
    26.7, a book of the detained TKEP leader, Teslim Töre, entitled Capitalism, Socialism and Organization is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    27.7, the last issue of the periodical Odak  is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    29.7, Özgür Ülke correspondent Mihriban Artiklar is subjected to torture and insults at the Istanbul Police Directorate to where she went to take her passport.
    29.7, Özgür Ülke N°45 is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
    31.7, in Gaziantep, a police team raiding a house detain six musicians, Saban Kilic, Mustafa Gümüs, Ilyas Gümüs, Salih Ceylan, Ahmet Sezer and Celal Sezer during a musical work.

    A tripartite commission announced, on August 5, the new minimum wage for workers as TL 4,173,750 gross. After social security and income tax cuts, a worker will be paid TL 2,759,429 ($ 81) per month.
    The figure represents a 67.12 per cent increase in comparison with the minimum wage of last year while the inflation rate of the past one year is over 110 per cent.
    The Trade Unions Confederation of Turkey (Türk-Is), considering ridiculous the wage increase proposed by the government, refused to take part in the deliberations of the Minimum Wage Commission. So, the new minimum wage was adopted by the representatives of the government and the employers in the absence of the trade union representatives.


    Trade unions staged, on July 20, a one-day countrywide "general action" to press for salary increases to cope with the sky-rocketing inflation.  The action was marked by staging demonstrations in big cities, leaving work and stopping public transport in many places.
    This was the first giant common action carried out by the Trade Unions Confederation of Turkey (Türk-Is), the Progressive Trade Unions Confederation (DISK), Hak-Is Confederation and the Public Workers Unions Platform, which have organized themselves under an umbrella group called the Democracy Platform.
    The trade unions accused the government of failing to honour previous agreements to increase the wages of public sector workers. They also demanded a halt to mass layoffs. Some 52,000 workers have been laid off under the austerity package announced by Prime Minister Ciller on April 5.


    The Turkish Trade Unions Confederation (Türk-Is) complained to the ILO about the anti-worker policies of the Turkish Government.
    In a speech to the ILO's Executive Board, Türk-Is Chairman Bayram Meral said that Turkey is still being administrated by the constitution and laws of the 12 September 1980 military coup and that Turkey is consistently violating the agreements of ILO agreements.
    "Limitations put on the collective bargaining and strike rights of public workers are still continuing. Public employees are faced with administrative obstacles, anti-union separatism and various forms of oppression when they try to use their basic democratic and union rights. It is stressing to observe that some unionists have been detained, taken into custody or even sentenced to jail terms and deprived of their basic union rights as a result or the anti-democratic laws," Meral said.
    Stressing that workers' problems in Turkey had been increased by the stability programme [adopted on April 5], Meral said that  the trade unions had not been consulted when preparing the austerity package and that only the demands and interests of the IMF and employers had been taken into account.
    "The austerity package is anti-democratic and it tried to put the burden of the crisis on the shoulders of the workers," he said.

    Turkey's annual per capita income, calculated at $1,980, ranked 50th in the world in 1992, according to World Bank report, while Switzerland topped with $36,080. Japan and Sweden ranked second and third with respective per capita income figures of $28,190 and $27,010.
    Meanwhile, the World Bank data shows that Turkey's per capita income calculated on a purchasing power parity basis was $5,170 in 1992, ranking 49th in the world, as the USA topped with $23,120. Switzerland and Germany ranked second and third with respective PPP per capita income figures of $22,100 and $20,610.
    In another ranking, Turkey was put into 26th place in terms of the size of the gross national product (GNP), which amounted to $115,8 billion in 1992. Turkey's PPP-GNP was $302.5 billion and ranked 19th.


    Turkey's foreign debt stock went up to $67.3 billion at the end of last year and its ratio to Gross National Product increased to 40.6 per cent, the official Anatolia news agency reported on July 15.
    In all, 72.5 per cent of the total foreign debt stock is made up of middle and long-term and the remaining portion, of short-term debts.
    According to Treasury data, the ratio of total foreign debt stock to GNP, which showed an upward trend between the years 1988 and 1991, continued to increase to 36.2 per cent in 1992 and 40.6 per cent in 1993.


    The new rules as regards ships passing through the Straits, put in force on July 1, 1994, by the Turkish Government, have led to a series of protests from the countries using this waterway.
    The passage through the Straits had been regulated in 1936 by the Montreux Convention. However, the volume of shipping using the Straits has vastly expanded since 1936. Turkish maritime officials say about 60 per cent of the 45,000 ships now passing through every year carry natural gas, chemicals, oil or oil derivatives, or even nuclear waste.
    After the collision of two vessels flying Greek Cypriot flags, one of which was carrying oil from Russia, the Turkish Government decreed that vessels carrying hazardous materials must declare their intention to pass the Straits 24 hours in advance. If necessary, other traffic may be halted while they go through.  Ankara also "strongly urges" them take pilots on board, although, according to the Montreux Convention, this cannot be made obligatory.
    Two of Turkey's neighbours, Russia and Greece have criticised the new regulations, claiming they are against international law and the 1936 Montreux Convention. Other countries — Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Oman — have also objected to the rules unveiled by Turkey in a meeting of the International Maritime Organization meeting held a month ago.