IN THIS ISSUE
• The Army needs $150 Billion in the next 25 years
• Turkey to produce its army's helicopters
• Controversial copters put into service in Southeast
• The Labor Party under the menace of closure
• HADEP leaders imprisoned on a flag provocation
• The new government is responsible for the death of 12 prisoners
• Police violence against the Saturday Mothers
• Concern of international medical organisations
• Human rights violations in last three months
• 13,665 unsolved murders at SSC
• No return to the evacuated villages
• The "accidental death" of a witness to police brutality
• Recent figures of the violation of the freedom of opinion
• Publisher Zarakolu imprisoned again
• Trial on journalist assassination kidnapped
• A Turkish journalist assassinated in Cyprus
• Police attack to journalists' association
• New sentences against Ismail Besikci
• Med-TV back on air despite Ankara's pressure
• The European Parliament's actions on Turkey
• At last the shameful Europalia-Turkey festival cancelled
• OSCE calls on Ankara to a peaceful solution
• Rise of Turkish businessmen in Europe
Con Lady's Reward For Customs
Sixteen years after the September 12, 1980, military
coup carried out on pretext of protecting secular Republic against
Islamist rise and nine months after the ratification of the Customs
Union on pretext of raising the electoral chance of DYP leader Tansu
Ciller against the Islamists gaining power, Islamist RP leader
Necmeddin Erbakan was ushered into prime minister's office by this most
corrupted politician of the Republic's history.
And the military, in return of the acceptance by
Erbakan of all repressive and anti-democratic measures imposed by the
National Security Council (MGK), have immediately declared their
allegiance to the Islamist prime minister.
As for the United States, the State Department
spokesman Nicholas Burns, in an interview to the Turkish Daily News of
July 17, approached to the Islamist power with comprehension and said:
"I don't believe we have ever said that 'secularism' is something that
we feel must continue for us to have a relationship with Turkey."
Although one of the first thing that the new
government did was to impose a 6 percent charge on imports that are
financed by foreign credit, European diplomatic missions are still
looking optimistically for new gestures of Erbakan and his company to
give the hope of a peaceful integration into Europe of the Turkish
Islamism tempered with ultra nationalism, militarism and opportunism.
Pulitzer-winning foreign affairs commentator Jim
Hoagland, in The Washington Post of July 10, lashed at the "con artist"
coalition leaders Erbakan and Ciller."Turkey's political stability is
now hostage to a con game, a pair of Turkish grifters are running on
each other and ultimately on the Clinton administration. Erbakan was
the one who first made public that Ciller was responsible for the
disappearance of millions of dollars while she was prime minister.
Erbakan dropped his demand (for a formal inquiry) as part of this
week's political deal, but the sword still hangs over her head," he
• In fact, the files of inquiry about Ciller's
irregularities and corruptions, dressed by the RP, are still at the
Parliamentary committees. However, it is the same RP that is now
obstructing at the committees to discuss the matter in return of
Ciller's total obedience to the RP's policies.
• Not only at Parliament, but also at tribunals,
Ciller is still the object of legal proceedings started by Prime
Minister Necmeddin Erbakan and Justice Minister Sevket Kazan. When the
RP in opposition made public Ciller's irregularities, the con lady
accused Erbakan of smuggling drugs and embezzling the funds collected
for Bosnian people. She also accused Sevket Kazan of being a
dishonoured and slanderer man. In three legal proceedings, Erbakan and
Ciller demand to condemn Ciller to a total fine of TL 16 billion. The
irony of fate, as these files are waiting to be dealt by tribunals,
these three persons, Erbakan, Ciller and Kazan, accusing each other of
being corrupt, embezzler, smuggler and dishonoured, sit side by side in
the same government of the Turkish Republic respectively as Prime
Minister, Vice-Prime Minister and Justice Minister.
• Ciller's most spectacular submission to the RP is
no doubt in the field of foreign affairs of which she is the main
responsible as the foreign minister. Just after the formation of the
RP-DYP government, Ciller, at its first meeting with the ambassadors of
Turkey's Western allies, categorically denied the rumours that
Erbakan was to make his first official visit to Islamic countries.
However, contradicting his partner, Erbakan started his first official
visit to Iran, Pakistan, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia on August
10-20 in a gesture to satisfy his Islamist electorate. Despite the US
reaction, he signed a $20 billion natural gas deal with Iran.
• Earlier, during Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak's
visit to Ankara on July 11, Erbakan said him that the Moslim
Brotherhood leaders who are in Egyptian prisons for terrorism were in
fact against any kind of violence and that they should not be treated
like terrorists. He also suggested Mubarak that his administration
reconcile its differences with the Muslim Brotherhood. Even on such a
remark irking the Egyptian President, Ciller had to shut her mouth.
• One of the first things that the Islamists made in
power was to announce on July 15, the building of a mosque in the heart
of Istanbul, at the Taksim Square. Beside, RP circles say that their
next goal is to reopen Istanbul's Saint Sophia, famous Byzantine
church, as a functioning mosque.
• In another move, the RP obstructed in Parliament
the passage to a 8-year fundamental education system so that Imam Hatip
(religious) Schools can continue to function as the secondary schools.
These schools are known as the main training centres of Islamist
militants who are later allowed to enter universities and higher
schools and become governors and security chiefs.
There are some other moves that have no doubt entire
consent of Ciller who has privileged relations with the Turkish fascist
• After forming their government, Erbakan and Ciller
rushed one after the other to Cyprus on the occasion of the 22nd
anniversary of the Turkish occupation of the island. This visits were
followed by the arrival of more than 3 thousand Grey Wolves, fascist
militants of the Nationalist Action Party (MHP), to counter Greek and
European bikers protesting against the division of the island. Under
the aegis of the Turkish Government and the Turkish commanders in
Cyprus, they savagely killed two Greek demonstrators on August 11 and
• The remains of Enver Pasha (1881-1922), a member
of the military triumvirate responsible for the human tragedy during
the First World War, particularly for the Armenian Genocide, were
brought from Tajikistan. This symbol of the Turkish expansionism was
buried at a memorial hill in Istanbul on August 4 with military
ceremonies attended by President Demirel, ministers and top generals.
• Using as a pretext a provocative act of removing
Turkish flag at the HADEP Congress, which led to the arrest of all
party leaders, a frenetic campaign was launched throughout the country:
"Raise your flag!" As well in Turkey as in foreign countries where a
Turkish community exists, the sales of Turkish flags have reached
unprecedented levels. In public events and especially during the
football matches, thousands of Turkish flags are raised by shouting
slogans: "Turkey is the biggest!" Very often Turkish flags are
accompanied by the three-crescent and Grey Wolf flags of the Turkish
fascist movement, as it was seen on the TV screens during the
Turkey-Belgium football competition in Brussels on August 31.
In the matters of regime, despite their all rhetoric
for democracy during opposition years, the Islamists have not delayed
in following the path of the preceding governments in immediate
submission to the Army's diktat.
• After a series of mutual visits between Erbakan
and Army generals and military briefings, conforming to the NSC's
directives, the emergency law in ten Kurdish provinces was prolonged
until the end of the year. For the coming years, preparations were
started to replace the emergency law by a new legislation giving
extraordinary powers to provincial governors.
• Good-will attempts by some Islamist personalities,
including a RP deputy, for a dialogue with the Kurdish national
movement were immediately refuted by Erbakan though he seemed
favourable earlier. Erbakan's this submission to the military led the
PKK to put an end to unilateral cease-fire it proclaimed before the
• As seen in the other pages, the violations of
human rights continue as before and the government's image has already
been tarnished by the death of twelve prisoners on hunger strike.
• While the RP-DYP Government's stubborn attitude
concerning prison conditions led to the death of twelve hunger strikers
in prisons, Justice Minister Sevket Kazan favoured 23 Islamists
convicted for burning 37 intellectuals in Sivas three years ago and
transferred them on August 26 from Kirsehir prison to Sivas so that
they could be visited by their relatives more easily.
• Erbakan, forgetting all his anti-semitic and
anti-Israel declarations during his opposition years, made a
spectacular U-turn and, under the pressure of the military. The
government first ratified the Turco-Israel military training agreement
signed in February to which Erbakan firmly opposed as an act hostile to
Muslim world when he was in opposition. Recently, on August 28, Erbakan
administration signed a second defense cooperation agreement with
• The Islamists, in another 180-degree shift, voted
on July 30 for the extension of Operation Provide Comfort that
prolonged the Western intervention in Northern Iraq..
• If the RP has become the first political party of
the country, it was due to its populist rhetoric criticising
anti-social policies of Ciller and her former partners. Already within
first two months of their power, the Islamists proved that they are not
different from the others. For example, while the monthly food budget
alone for a family of four should at least be TL25 million, the
government yielding to employers fixed minimum wage at TL17.01 million
($197). Besides, the Islamist government provoked the anger of workers
by refusing to pay back the compulsory wage cuts which had been
qualified as a pillage when the RP was in opposition.
• Furthermore, the hostility of Ciller against
workers became more aggressive since she became a partner of Islamists.
During a visit by trade union leaders to her office on July 30, Ciller
she hysterically cried, "Public workers and the Social Security
Institute are sucking Turkey's blood! I wrote the workers off my book.
What they do? And you still have the face to come and ask pay-rises
THE ARMY NEEDS $150 BILLION IN THE NEXT 25 YEARS
Prime Minister Necmeddin Erbakan, in a new move to
satisfy the military, urged the domestic Turkish defense industry, on
August 11, 1996, to speed up efforts "to become self-sufficient and
provide for all the needs of the Armed Forces."
During a briefing given by officials from both the
Armed Forces and the Defense Ministry, Erbakan requested that, if
possible, the direct purchase of arms from foreign manufacturers should
be suspended and those needs met by domestic sources.
Erbakan also called for feasibility studies into
defense cooperation with Muslim countries, in particular Malaysia,
Indonesia and Pakistan. He also said that attempts would be made to
attract Turkish defense experts currently working abroad back home.
Earlier, the Office of the Chief of General Staff
announced on April 5, 1996, that $150 billion would be needed to fund
the arms and operations of the Turkish Armed Forces in the next 25
During this period, the land forces will need 60,
the navy 25, and the air force will need 65 billion dollars-worth arms
The announcement was made during a meeting attended
by representatives of ministries, universities and industrial
organizations to determine future defense requirements. An extensive
reorganisation project was launched in 1990 to restructure and
modernise the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK). The main goal of the project
was "to meet the country's defense needs in the most efficient manner
without putting the nation's interests and security at risk, and to
establish a dynamic structure for the army as a whole while
streamlining the headquarters and base unit organizations."
The announcement said: "In order to provide the TSK
with the modern equipment and vehicles which its projected force
structure calls for, the threats that will face Turkey in the future
must be taken into consideration. The priority needs of the TSK are
command and control systems, communications equipment, computer and
intelligence systems as well as electronic warfare systems and guided
missiles which the wars of the 21st century will require. In addition,
upgrading the main arms systems is considered a top priority."
The projects which were proposed during the meeting
are as follows:
A) The Joint projects of the forces:
• TSK Integrated Communications Systems (TAFICS)
• TSK command control data system
• Tactical field communications system
• Frequency hopping and encryption radio.
• Assault and reconnaissance helicopters.
• The production of rocket and missile systems.
• Satellite monitoring system.
B) Land forces projects
• New radar systems.
• Electronic systems for eavesdropping and jamming.
• Various radio, cryptography, and computer systems.
• Low altitude air defense systems.
• Modern anti-tank weapons
• Armoured personnel carriers, howitzers
• Tank modernization
C) Naval projects
• 'Long Horizon' monitoring-reconnaissance project.
• Sea patrol and monitoring aircraft.
• New radars and modernization of existing equipment
• New satellite terminals, modernization and
• The construction of a Turkish designed frigate.
• A new generation of mine hunting and anti-mine
• A new generation of patrol ships.
D) Air force projects
• Early warning and command control aircraft.
• Tanker aircraft.
• Command control and intelligence satellite systems.
• Reconnaissance system to transfer and evaluate
• Air defense missile systems.
• Modern air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons
• Search and rescue helicopters.
Officials from the general staff said that 1,523
projects are planned at a cost of $67 billion until the year 2004. They
added that one-third of their budget is allocated to modernization
"Despite current modernization programs, in the next
25 years most of the weapons in the inventory of the Turkish Armed
Forces will have to be modernized and obsolete weapons will have to be
replaced by a new generation of equipment," said officials from the
The needs of the Land Forces Command ($60 billion in
750 helicopters, 180 rocket and missile systems, 150
antitank rockets, 12 remote control air vehicles, 3,627 main
communication tanks, 1,951 guns and howitzers, 48,564 wheeled vehicles.
The needs of the Naval Forces Command ($25 billion
14 frigates, 16 patrol ships, 15 guided assault
boats, 9 submarines, 4 anti-mine ships 4 mine sweepers, 35 landing
vehicles, one communications backed ship, 25 auxiliary class ships and
vehicles, 9 sea patrol aircraft, 38 helicopters.
The needs of the Air Forces Command ($65 billion in
640 fighter jets, 79 operations airplanes, 160
training aircraft, 68 transportation airplanes, 25 helicopters, 442 air
defense weapon systems.
Pointing out that the cost of the resources which
will be needed within the period has been computed as nearly $150
billion at 1995 prices, general staff officials have recalled that the
only way to keep that money within the country is to develop the
national defense industry.
Noting that at present only 21 percent of the main
weapon, equipment and spare parts needs of the TSK could be met by
domestic production, and that 79 percent of the needs were supplied
from abroad, the general staff officials said:
"Our concept on the issue of modernization can be
summarized as to support our national defense industry in order to keep
the resources which will be spent to meet the needs of the TSK within
the country as much as possible.
"Except in urgent cases, the issue means not
procuring former technology product arms, equipment and material even
through donation. However since the meeting of the entire needs of the
TSK within a short time through national production does not seem
possible, either technology transfer is carried out or works to
participate in the arming cooperation projects of NATO and the Western
European Union. Turkish industrialists are considered likely to get
significant business shares from such consortia, and support them
accordingly. It is believed that our country will, reach at a stage
where it produces and exports technology during every phase of
production instead of being a purchasing country."
General staff officials pointed out that countries
had allocated large resources for research and development activities
in order to progress their defense industries and to protect the level
they had reached. Whereas, they continued, according to the data of
1990, the resources which Turkey had allocated for research and
development activities was only 0.3 percent of GNP. They said that the
portion of that amount which was allocated to the defense industry was
one percent. They recalled that at present Turkey was a NATO member
which tendered defense industry business. They said except the United
States and Canada, 25 percent of the $4.8 billion tender had been
opened by Turkey within the past three years. They noted that following
Saudi Arabia, it was regrettable event that Turkey was the biggest arms
importer in the area.
General staff officials pointed out that while
existing defense industry organizations in Turkey belonged to the
public sector, there existed many private companies with the capacity
to undertake projects in the defense field. They listed measures for
the improvement of the defense industry as follows:
The principles and aims in this field should be
determined by the state, and the necessary legal provisions must be
made so that organizations of vital importance be maintained. A central
organization should be established to carry out production in rational
way, to ensure coordination with other organizations and to guide
research and development works. In fact, it was declared, a study has
been launched at the TSK for this purpose.
When the TSK needs have been decided on by the Chief
of the General Staff and approved by Parliament, appropriate budgetary
provision will be made to encourage private industry to invest in the
field of defense, the officials said. Priority must be given to
critical areas in which the country presently depends on foreign
products. Resources must be allocated for research and potential in
Turkish universities must be explored.
In cases of cooperative ventures with foreign
countries, the existing capabilities and capacities of Turkey's defense
industry must be protected and consortiums should be preferred to
partnerships with individual countries. Turkey should retain control of
administering every phase of such ventures.
General Cevik Bir, the deputy chief of General
Staff, military officials, under-secretaries of the prime ministry, the
Foreign Affairs ministry and the Energy Ministry, deputy
under-secretaries of other relevant ministries, the rectors of METU and
Bilkent universities, Halis Komili of the Turkish Industrialists and
Businessmen's Association (TUSIAD), Rahmi Koc, Bulent Eczacibasi, Faruk
Suren and general directors of private sector enterprises and public
organizations attended the meeting at the General Staff headquarters.
TURKEY TO PRODUCE ITS ARMY'S HELICOPTERS
In a significant step toward its policy of meeting
the country's defense industry needs through local production, Ankara
has decided to set up its own helicopter industry. Defense industry
sources say that the country will choose to build either an "assault"
helicopter or a "third generation" helicopter and will produce 95
percent of the aircraft locally.
A working group was formed on July 25 during a
meeting at the Chief of Staff's Office to take the preliminary steps.
The group is comprised of representatives of the
Turkish Aircraft Company (TUSAS) and the Foundation for the
Strengthening of the Turkish Armed Forces (TSGV), and will be under the
coordination of the Defense Industry Under secretariat (SSM).
The helicopter chosen for production will be from
among those on Turkey's "national production" list; namely, the A-129
International (Mangusta) built by the Italian company Augusta, the
French-German Tiger built by the joint venture Eurocopter, Russia's
M1-28, as well as American products such as Bell's King Cobra, which is
an advanced version of the Super Cobra, McDonnell Douglas's Apache, the
Sikorsky, or Boeing's Comanche.
Turkey will produce the helicopters with one of
these companies with 95 percent local input or will jointly produce a
brand-new, third generation helicopter with the selected company.
Once the model and the production method are
determined, the project, in which the Turkish Aviation Industry (TAT),
Aselsan and Havelsan will take part along with a number of private
sector establishments, will be ready for production by the year 2000.
Initially, 100 helicopters are expected to be produced.
There are plans to produce the second phase of a
project for 30 Cougar helicopters which Turkey had decided to buy from
France using 30 percent local input.
The initial plan had called for the helicopters to
be built with 20 percent local input. Negotiations are underway with
France to raise that rate to 30 percent.
Officials note that 18 percent local input is being
envisaged for the Black Hawk helicopters.
CONTROVERSIAL MI-17 COPTERS PUT INTO SERVICE IN SOUTHEAST
Despite the harsh criticism of Turkey's purchase of
Mi-17s, Turkey has been using the Russian-made helicopters for
transport and medical evacuations in operations against the Kurdistan
Workers Party (PKK) in the Southeast, military officials said on July
The $65 million purchase of 19 Mi-17s in 1995 was
attacked by defense experts and the media. The critics said that the
lack of spare parts and maintenance support for the helicopters were
the main problems, adding that the Mi-17s were incompatible with NATO
The helicopters stood idle in Ankara for months
until sufficient spare parts were flown in and the helicopters could be
put into service in the Southeast.
Although the Mi-17 are capable of performing an
attack role when their weapons pods are loaded, the officials said it
was impossible to use them for such missions because of their low
performance and poor agility.
During operations, the Mi-17s steer clear of battle
fields, according to military officials.
Compared to the other helicopters in use in the
Turkish Armed Forces such as the Cobras and Sikorskys, the Mi-17s have
primitive technology, the officials said, adding that the Mi-17s'
mechanical engineering lags 30 years behind the electronic systems of
The $65-million agreement signed by Turkey and
Russia in 1995 for the 19 Mi-17 copters was the result of a Russian
proposal to cover its nearly $200-million debt to Turkey.
THE NEW GOVERNMENT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEATH OF 12 HUNGER STRIKERS
The hunger strike in Turkish prisons which
reinforced the Midnight Express image in the world opinion with the
death of 12 strikers ended at 11.30 p.m. on July 27th, on its 69th day
and on the 25th day of death fast.
By July 26th, 355 prisoners were on death fast and 2
thousand 174 were on hunger strike in 43 prisons at 38 cities. Of the
arrested and convicted inmates who had participated in the hunger
strike and the death fast, 170 were taken under treatment. The
condition of 18 prisoners is reportedly serious and 7 out of these are
kept at the intensive care unit.
Minister of Justice Sevket et Kazan, accepted the
demands by prisoners, first and foremost the transfer of the 102
prisoners at the Eskisehir Special Type Prison. Accordingly, 20 out of
the prisoners in Eskisehir shall be transferred to Istanbul Umraniye
and 82 to Gebze Prison. Besides, the following
demands by the prisoners were acknowledged:
- Closing of the Eskisehir Special Type Prison for
- Ending of violence experienced during the
transfers to hospitals and courts,
- Ending of the violence and detentions directed
against the families,
- Allowance of publications (which are not banned)
inside the prisons,
- Unimpeded social relationships among the prisoners,
- Establishment of a committee to observe whether
the legal rights are utilized or not,
- Prisoner representatives' maintenance of the
communication between the prison administration and the prisoners.
The Chairman of the Human Rights Foundation of
Turkey (TIHV), Yavuz Önen, on the agreement to put an end to hunger
strike, issued the following statement:
"We insist that those responsible for the death of
12 people should be prosecuted. The Turkish Government in general, and
Justice Minister Sevket Kazan in particular are responsible for the
death of 12 people. The prisoners had humane and acceptable demands,
but the Government was not eager to reach an agreement even when the
deaths were taking place one after another. Indeed, Kazan had made
provocative expressions during this period, and in a press conference
held on July 26th, he created the impression that risking the death of
numerous prisoners, intervention would take place in the prisons.
"We are very glad that the hunger strike ended,
although belatedly, in consensus. However, the prisons have always been
a bleeding wound of Turkey. Killing and beating of the prisoners,
inhuman treatment and bans continuously took place in the prisons.
Rights obtained after hunger strikes have been taken back within a
short time. In order to avoid any arbitrary implementation in the
future, the problems in the prisons should be taken into consideration
within a general judicial reform programme, and discussed among the
representatives of the prisoners, the Government and the NGOs. A
permanent solution should be found for the problems in the prisons,
living conditions should be improved, and humane standards of living
should be adopted through laws. And finally, the NGOs should be able to
make observations in the prisons, and their reports should be taken
into consideration by the Government."
On August 21, it was reported that many of the
promises given by the Justice Minister were not yet held. Political
prisoners in Erzurum and Amasya were still on hunger strike. The
Prisons Monitoring Committee warned the government to implement the
conditions on which the consensus was built or otherwise their failure
would give rise to further mass hunger strikes in Turkey's prisons.
The Turkish Medical Union (TTB) claimed that
ex-strikers were not receiving adequate treatment because of
bureaucratic tangles between the Justice, Health and Interior
[To illustrate better the prison conditions in
Turkey, we are reproducing in the further pages the extracts of a new
file isdsued by the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TIHV) in March
HADEP LEADERS IMPRISONED ON A FLAG PROVOCATION
The People's Democracy Party (HADEP), just like its
predecessors defending the rights of the Kurdish people, has become the
target of the State terrorism. Following a provocation during its
congress held in Ankara on June 23, 1996, 41 party leaders were
arrested and sent to extraordinary court as the party itself is being
menaced by closure.
During the HADEP congress, despite all the security
measures taken by party officials, some unidentified individuals
removed the Turkish flag from behind the stage and replaced it with the
banner of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and a poster of its leader,
Using this act as a pretext, the police encircled
the sports hall where the congress was taking place and arrested HADEP
Chairman Murat Bozlak and other party officials. As the party leaders
were taken to police headquarters, the police attacked delegates who
were protesting against the arrests and tens of them were seriously
As the delegates were returning to their home
provinces in the night, the leaders of the HADEP Elbistan section were
machine-gunned by a death squad near to Kayseri. Parallel to this,
throughout Turkey attacks were started against the HADEP members.
Although HADEP officials qualified the removal of
the Turkish flag by unidentified persons as a provocation, the
judiciary authorities immediately started legal proceeding against the
Finally, on August 26, the Ankara SSC indicted HADEP
Chairman Murat Bozlak and 40 other party officials under Article 5 of
the Anti-Terror Law and Article 168/1 of the Turkish Penal Code.
Accused of "leading an underground organization",
Chairman Murat Bozlak, Deputy Chairmen Osman Özcelik and Ismail Arslan,
secretary General Bahattin Günel, party officials Zeynettin Unay,
Seracettin Kirici, Cihan Sincar, Mehmet Nuri Günes, Isa Karakurt,
Abdullah Akin, Ahmet Cihan, Ali Riza Yurtsever, Aynur Gürbüz, Serap
Mutlu, Veli Aydogan, Ziya Arikan, Melik Aygül, Musa Kulu, Hikmet Fidan,
Hasan Cemalettin Ezman, Hamit Geylani, Cabbar Leygara and Edip Yildiz
face prison terms of up to 22.5 years.
Accused of "being members of an illegal
organization," the following party officials face prison terms of not
less then ten years: Celalettin Erkmen, Kudret Gözütok, Firat Anli,
Kemal Okutan, Yasar Küpeli, Ferhan Türk, Etem Bingöl, Babür Pinar,
Bayram Önal, Tevfik Kaya, Dursun Turan, Nebahat Altiok, Meliha Özcan,
Ibrahim Elveren, Ilhan Akalin, Ömer Doyuran and Rasit Pirinc.
Sirri Sakik, who was sentenced alongside six
other DEP MPs in 1994, is to be tried under Article 8 of the
anti-terror law - against separatist propaganda - which has a maximum
three-year jail sentence.
Before HADEP, the People's Labour Party (HEP), the
Democracy Party (DEP) and the Freedom and Democracy Party (ÖZDEP) were
closed down one after the other and their leaders subjected to legal
According to Reuters, the trial could bring further
problems for Ankara abroad over its human rights credentials and
undermine promises by Islamist Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan to
improve justice and tackle a 12-year Kurdish insurgency in the spirit
of "brotherly love."
THE LABOR PARTY (EP) UNDER THE MENACE OF CLOSURE
A law suit was filed at the Constitutional Court
against the Labor Party (EP), two months after its establishment, by
the Chief Public Prosecution Office of the Supreme Court. The section
in the Party Program under the heading "A democratic popular solution
to the Kurdish problem" was shown as the ground for the closure demand.
In protest again this menace of closure, a group of
EP members gathered before the EP headquarters in Ankara on June 24.
All of a sudden, the group was attacked without warning by the
anti-riot police forces.
At the attack, more than 200 demonstrators
were wounded, thirty of them seriously. Policemen aimed their
truncheons blows at the demonstrators' heads in particular and did not
allow ambulances' access to the street so that the wounded could be
More than 250 people were detained, either in front
of the EP headquarters or at the hospitals where they were being
In a press conference attended by the
representatives of democratic organizations as well as by two members
of European Parliament, Claudia Roth and Magda Aelvoet, EP chairman
Levent Tüzel accused the State authorities of attacking everyone asking
democracy and peace in the country.
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN APRIL-MAY-JUNE 1996
The Human Rights Association (IHD) issued on July 30
its report on human rights violations that occurred in Turkey during in
April, May and June 1996. Stating that there were still 136 prisoners
of opinion at the end of June, the report holds the security forces
mainly responsible for the deaths, disappearances and torture in
detention which occurred especially in the south-eastern part of Turkey.
Below are the IHD figures on human rights abuses in
April, May and July:
Unsolved murders 10
Deaths in detention 32
Deaths during clashes 730
Civilian deaths 18
Missing after being detained 36
Cases of torture 50
Police detentions 6342
Court arrests 354
Evacuated villages 12
Associations or media offices shut
Associations or media offices
Detained journalists 106
Confiscated publications 48
In addition, prosecutors demanded sentences of 62
years and 9 months imprisonment in charges against journalists.
Tribunals pronounced 35 years and 6 months
imprisonment and a total fine of TL 1 billion 549 million in trials for
13,665 UNSOLVED MURDERS AT SSC
A total of 13,665 murder cases remained unsolved at
the end of 1995 but are still under investigation by the eight State
Security Court prosecutors' offices, the Anatolia News Agency reported
on August 1.
According to data from the General Directorate of
Criminal Records and Statistics, the prosecutors received files on
2,401 new murder in 1995, to be added to the 11,264 cases left over
from previous years.
The court in Diyarbakir has the greatest number of
unsolved cases, with 11,699. The court in Malatya takes second place
with 879 unsolved murder cases, followed by Erzincan with 695, Izmir
with 11, Istanbul with 83, Ankara with 73, Kayseri with 37 and Konya
The ratio of unsolved murder cases to the total
workload of the SSCs was 56.4 percent.
NO RETURN TO THE EVACUATED VILLAGES
Despite the claims of the new government that the
victims of village evacuations are authorized to return to their homes,
CHP Spokesman Sinan Yerlikaya said on August 5 that there were no
activities taking place in parallel to this promise.
"I made a study in the Southeast, there is no
village where reverse migration is taking place. There are a few
villages of which the people were forced to be village guards. Those
who have migrated to cities are in streets, in coffee shops and trying
to survive in tents and stables. There is neither agriculture nor
On July 10, the human rights association Mazlum-Der
announced that in last years a total of 4,185,000 persons in the
southeastern were forced to leave their villages and hamlets and to
migrate to big cities.
Many of these forced migrants have been installed in
the following cities with the indicated numbers:
THE "ACCIDENTAL DEATH" OF A WITNESS TO POLICE BRUTALITY
A woman named Hanim Gül, the "only living witness"
of a police operation which left four persons dead, was reported on
July 23 to have committed suicide while under police observation at
Taksim Emergency Hospital in Istanbul.
It all began on July 14 when police raided Gül's
house on the grounds that it was the safehouse of an illegal leftist
organization. During the raid Hanim Gül saved her life by jumping from
a window. She was taken to the hospital to be treated for a bullet
wound and the trauma arising from her fall.
Police announced that during the incident the
family's 16-year old daughter Suna Gül was killed, branding her as a
terrorist. On the next day Suna Gül, very much alive, appeared to say
that she was not a terrorist and that she was somewhere else during the
And a few days later her mother Hanim Gül was killed
after falling from a hospital window.
Hanim Gül's death adds a new link to the chain of
suspicion about the police, particularly because she was the only
living person able to speak about what happened at the police attack in
POLICE VIOLENCE AGAINST THE "SATURDAY MOTHERS"
Among different ways of protest against State
terrorism, the periodic meetings of the mothers of disappeared people
each Saturday in Istanbul has been one of the most spectacular events
The protest started after the disappearance of Hasan
Ocak during the disturbances that took place in the Gaziosmanpasa
district on March 12, 1995, and have continued to grow throughout all
four seasons — despite rain, snow, wind, burning sun ad police pressure.
The protesters take their inspiration from the Plaza
Del Mayo Mothers of Argentina. For 52 weeks the protests were peaceful,
but since the Habitat II Conference in Istanbul they have been marked
by the brutality of the police which considered that the demonstrations
would negatively influence the image of Turkey,
On June 22, police violently intervened against
Saturday Mothers when they attempted to lay carnations in Galatasaray
Square. That day all people carrying carnations in their hands in
Istiklal Caddesi, the main pedestrianized shopping street that leads to
Galatasaray Square, were arrested by police.
In July, as the new government was talking of more
democratization, the police violence against Saturday Mothers reached
dreadful dimensions. Each Saturday, hundreds of mothers or relatives as
well as many people, including women, lawyers, writers and artists have
been subjected to police brutality. In August, when
it became evident that police cannot prevent Saturday Mothers from
gathering each week, the neo-fascist MHP started to gather the mothers
of those soldiers or policemen who died in armed confrontation with the
PKK at the Edirnekapi Military Cemetery every Friday. As Saturday
Mothers are being ill-treated, Friday Mothers are openly supported by
police and army chiefs and by the big media in such a way that the
suffering of mothers serves to a further polarization in Turkish
CONCERNS OF INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL ORGANISATIONS ON TURKEY
An international delegation representing American
Association for the Advancement of Science, the Berlin Medical
Association, Doctors of the World, the US Helsinki Commission and
Physicians for Human Rights, after a visit to Turkey on July 1-6, 1996,
expressed concerns about torture and other human rights issues, and
especially challenged continuing attack on medical ethics.
The delegation attended the trial of Tufan Köse,
physician, and Mustafa Cinkilic, representative of the Human Rights
Foundation of Turkey (TIHV) in Adana. Both are accused by Turkish
authorities for their efforts to treat and rehabilitate victims of
They also met with Dr. Seyfettin Kizilkan, who has
appealed a 3 year and 9 months sentence on charges of aiding the PKK.
After having examined legal evidence that appears to be fabricated in
this case and having discussed the case with many people, urged the
Turkish Government to drop the charges against Dr. Kizilkan and to
reinstate him to his position as Chief Physician of Diyarbakir Social
STATE TERRORISM IN TWO MONTHS
3.6, during the trial of the Workers'-Peasants'
Liberation Army of Turkey (TIKKO) at the Istanbul SSC, gendarmes beat
all defendants for having launched political slogans. Eight defendants
are later taken to hospital.
3.6, security forces, raiding the village of Bay in
the province of Hakkari, take into custody about 50 villagers and force
many of them to eat excrement of their animals. The villagers inform
the IHD that an 80-year old ailing woman, Sedika Beyter is killed
during the razzia.
4.6, a penal court of Ankara starts to try 155
students, of whom 26 under arrest, for having taken part in a
demonstration in protest against the hike of university fees.
4.6, in Yüksekova, an Iranian woman named Seddighe
Cahani is shot dead by gendarmes on pretext that she did not obey to
the order to stop her car.
5.6, in Bismil, a 15-year old girl, G.Ö, claims to
have been tortured and sexually harassed for 16 days at the Commandos
Battalion after her detention for not carrying an identity card.
5.6, four officials of the Anti-War Association
(SKD), Osman Murat Ülke, Ali Serdar Tekin, Ayse Tosuner, Canan Kilic
and Funda Aktürk are sentenced by a penal court of Izmir to three
months in prison each for having sent a representative to a meeting of
a German peace organisation in 1994.
5.6, the police of Ankara announce the arrest of
eighteen people in last two weeks for having taken part in PKK
5.6, in Istanbul, HADEP secretary for the district
of Maltepe, Faruk Özkan is kidnapped by two unidentified persons
carrying fire-arms and wireless.
8.6, a four-year imprisonment against worker Ahmet
Kemal, for having participated in Newroz celebrations in 1992 in Cizre,
is ratified by the Court of Cassation. Kemal is put in the prison of
9.6, in Kiziltepe, 17-year old Kutbettin Kuru is
shot dead by two unidentified gunmen.
9.6, in Adana, Mrs. Kamile Kabak claims that her son
Hüsnü Kabak has disappeared after his detention by police two days ago.
9.6, in Tunceli, the village of Ulukale is raided by
security forces and many houses are set on fire.
10.6, the Chief Prosecutor starts two legal actions
against the administrative board of the Confederation of Turkish Trade
Unions (Türk-Is). for having organized two protest demonstrations in
11.6, twenty-six top officials of a series of trade
unions and democratic organizations are brought before a penal court of
Ankara for having supported a protest action of university students.
11.6, security forces detain six peasants in the
village of Günbagi in Erzincan and seven students in the city of
11.6, the Malatya SSC sentences three PKK members to
life prison and thirteen other defendants to different prison terms of
up to ten years.
12.6, the Court of Cassation ratifies a prison term
of three years and nine months against Nurettin Özatar, the former
president of the Students' Association of the Political Sciences
Faculty in Ankara. He is accused of being member of an underground
12.6, in Gemlik, two alleged members of the TIKKO
are placed under arrest by a tribunal. In Aydin, police take into
custody 18 people for participating in PKK activities.
13.6, in Van, the villages of Arcun, Avan and Askan
are depopulated by security forces on pretext of public security.
13.6, in Mersin, 15 year old G.Ö, is again taken
into custody along with her mother and sister. G.Ö had already been
detained for fifteen days in February 1996 in Bismil. After her release
she had claimed to have been tortured by the military.
13.6, in Van, security forces raiding a number of
houses arrest many students. Same day, in Adana, police detain nine
14.6, the headman of the village of Ciftlik in
Maras, Gürmo Agac is taken into custody by a military team raiding the
village. He had denounced to the daily Demokrasi that the villagers
were forced by security forces to be village protectors.
17.6, in Gaziantep, Dr. Bayram Bozbeyoglu is taken
into custody for having given medical care to hunger strikers in prison.
16.6, in Diyarbakir, the chairman of the Chamber of
Doctors in Medicine, Seyfettin Kizilkan is sentenced by the Diyarbakir
SSC to three years and nine months in prison for aiding the PKK. The
tribunal also decides to deprive Dr. Kizilkan of the right to perform
his profession for three years.
16.6, in Batman, a former trade union official,
Siyamet Yilmaz (Egitim Sen) is taken into custody together with his two
17.6, the daily Demokrasi reports that, in Istanbul,
Ibrahim Kanat has been kept under custody for one week together with
his wife Emine Kanat and their two children of whom one is three years
old and the other six years.
17.6, in Lice, a bomb explosion in the house of Avni
Babür causes to the death of his three children and the wounding of two.
17.6, in Istanbul, a detainee named Ümit Aydin is
reported thrown out from the third stage of the Political Police Centre
in Aksaray. Although hospitalised, Aydin's life is reportedly in danger.
18.6, the Izmir SSC sentences a member of the
Islamist organization IBDA-C to life prison.
18.6, security forces arrest eight people in
Istanbul in Istanbul and 23 people in Izmir. Among the latter is also a
young women who gave birth to a baby three days ago.
19.6, in Urfa, three people are taken in custody by
20.6, in Eskisehir, 46-year old Ramis Hatipoglu who
was taken into custody on charges of theft is found killed at the Carsi
20.6, security forces arrest HADEP members Mehmet
Sahin and Selam Sahin in Hakkari, another HADEP member, Ihsan Elcicek,
in Izmir. Besides, ten people are detained in Adana,
20.6, in Gaziantep, the chairwoman of the Women's
Foundation for Freedom (ÖKV), Berivan Bozkurt is taken into custody.
21.6, the trial of Türk-Is leaders begins at a penal
court of Ankara.
21.6, the public prosecutor starts a legal
proceeding against the chairman of the Freedom and Solidarity Party
(ÖDP), Ufuk Uras, and 14 other top party officials for a press release
criticising the operations by special teams in the South East.
22.6, in Iskenderun, the local CHP chairman Nihat
Parlas is sent to a heavy penal court for trial because of a
declaration he made at the IHD against anti-democratic practices of
23.6, security forces detain three people in Izmir
and three people in Istanbul, Afyon and Tunceli.
24.6, the Kayseri SSC sentences DHKP-C member
Mustafa Sarikaya to an imprisonment of twelve years and six months.
25.6, in Izmir, IHD members Güzin Barmasiz and Emrah
Dertli are kidnapped in a minibus by unidentified assailants.
25.6, twenty people, relatives of political
prisoners, are sent to a penal court of Ankara for having organized a
protest action in the capital city.
26.6, the Ankara SSC sentences 21 members of the
Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey/Young Communists' Union
(TDKP/GKB) to different prison terms of up to 12 years and 6 months.
26.6, in Mardin, security forces raiding the village
of Edi detain the village headman Abdurrahman Temel and 22 other
27.6, the Istanbul SSC sentences five PKK members to
life-prison and eight other defendants to different prison terms of up
to 22 years and 6 months.
27.6, security forces raid the Kocaeli office of the
Socialist Power Party (SIP) and confiscate all documents inside. Same
day, in Izmir, a meeting organized by the ÖDP against the privatisation
of public transport is prevented by police force.
27.6, security forces raiding the village of
Kocatepe in Mardin arrest twenty people.
28.6, the mayor of the town of Kilavuz in Mardin,
Abdurrahman Bozkurt is placed under arrest together with his two
son on charges of aiding the PKK. Bozkurt is a member of the DYP,
29.6, the daily Demokrasi reports that 62-year old
Keko Polat who was detained on June 10 by gendarmes raiding the village
of Lazvan in Tunceli is under treatment at a hospital in Elazig because
of tortures he underwent.
2.7, security forces raiding a house in Istanbul
detain ten people.
3.7, the daily Evrensel reports that seven trade
union officials belonging different unions have been kept under arrest
3.7, the Istanbul SSC sentences four DHKP-C members
to life prison, 19 other defendants to different prison terms of up to
18 years and 6 months.
4.7. the IHD chairman Akin Birdal is sentenced by
the Konya SSC to one year in prison and TL 300 thousand in fine for a
speech he gave in 1995 on the occasion of the World Peace Day.
4.7, the Istanbul SSC sentences five TDKP members to
prison terms of up to three years and nine months in prison.
4.7, in Sivas, security forces arrest three alleged
TIKKO members in Sivas, two persons in Istanbul, a 50-year old person
5.7, the chief public prosecutor starts a legal
proceeding in a view to have the Islamist Resurrection Party (IDP) on
grounds that this party has not participated in last two general
5.7, the trial of 32 people, accused of being
leaders and members of the underground Revolutionary Way (Dev-Yol),
starts at the Istanbul SSC. Seven defendants face capital punishment
and the rest prison terms of up to 22.5 years.
5.7, in Istanbul, police detain trade unionist Kenan
Öztürk and seven workers during a protest action.
6.7, in Cizre, Mehmet Inanc is assassinated by
6.7, in Istanbul, policemen raiding a house arrest
6.7, in Ankara, a group of Grey Wolves raid the
Cankaya office of the HADEP. In Izmir, a HADEP meeting in the town of
Buca is banned by the governor's decision.
6.7, in Adana, security forces raiding some houses
detain four municipal workers. Same day, two persons are arrested in
Suruc, six persons in Antalya, four persons in Manavgat.
7.7, former Kurdish deputy Mahmut Alliance is
brutally beaten by policemen in Ankara as trying to prevent a police
attack to the relatives of political prisoners.
7.7, in Batman, Meryem Arasan is paralysed following
the torture she underwent after her detention on June 3.
7.7, in Kiziltepe, Kenan Demir falls victim of an
8.7, in Milas, 15-year old M.C. claims to have been
tortured after being detained on June 18 by the gendarmery.
8.7, the Court of Cassation ratifies a 18-month
imprisonment against former RP deputy Hasan Mezarci for having insulted
Atatürk. Mezarci is currently in Germany. If returns to Turkey, he will
be put in prison.
9.7, in Izmir, two CHP officials, Nedim Güllü and
Ismet Atici claims to have been tortured during their detention at the
Anafartalar Police Station.
9.7, in Istanbul, the chairman of the Municipal
Servants' Union (Bem-Sen), Ali Bingöl is taken to police custody. In
Diyarbakir, the house of Kadri Gökdere, official of the Teachers' Union
(Egitim Sen) is reportedly under a constant police occupation.
9.7, security forces detain six PKK militants in
Izmir, six peasants in Suruc and two persons in Istanbul.
10.7, another Bem-Sen offical, Hanifi Saglam is
taken into custody in Istanbul.
10.7, in Batman, security forces raiding a house
shoot dead three persons accused of being PKK activists.
10.7, the Court of Cassation ratifies death
sentences against four DHKP-C members and prison terms of up to 15
years against four other defendants.
11.7, security forces have reportedly taken into
custody 12 trade union officials in last days. Two of them, Saglik-Sen
chairman Tolga Köseoglu and administrative board member Songul Aytermir
are placed under arrest by the Istanbul SSC.
11.7, in Diyarbakir, a police team raids the house
of the local chairman of the Highway Workers Union (Yol-Is), Enver
Ölmez by breaking the door with sledge-hammers. After beating his
children, Feyzullah (15) and Yeliz (19), policemen take him into
12.7, in Istanbul, Ibrahim Kanat who had been
detained together with his wife and his to children in June, claims
that police tortured himself and her wife in front of their children.
12.7, the trial of 139 people detained during a
protest demonstration in front of the National Education Ministry
starts at a penal court of Ankara. For unauthorised demonstration, each
faces a prison term of up to three years.
14.7, in Istanbul, a police team raiding a house
shoots dead four youths in a retaliation to an alleged DHKP-C attack to
a police station ended in the death of two policemen.
14.7, in Osmaniye, lawyer Hamza Yilmaz announces
that his client Abdülhamit Calkap was subjected to torture under police
15.7, security forces announce the arrest of 13
people in Izmir, twelve in Ankara, three in Istanbul, four in Mersin
and one in Antalya.
16.7, in Gaziantep, during a press conference of a
group of textile workers on strike, security forces detain about 60
people. Among the detainees are also officials from political parties,
trade unions and human rights organizations.
16.7, security forces detain thirteen people in
Izmir and fourteen people in Bursa for PKK activities. Same day seven
HADEP officials too are taken into police custody in Antalya.
17.7, a former official of the Health Workers' Union
(Tüm-Saglik-Sen), Mahmut Konuk is detained in Ankara.
18.7, the Kayseri SSC sentences six PKK militants to
different prison terms of up to 12 years and 6 months.
18.7, the Diyarbakir SSC places under arrest two
trade union officials, Vezir Perisen (Belediye Is) and Enver Ölmez (Yol
19.7, security forces detain three persons in
Dörtyol, one person in Pazarcik and three students in Istanbul four
19.7, in Lice, three persons are found killed by
21.7, a meeting organized by democratic
organizations in Istanbul for fundamental rights and freedom is banned
at the last moment by the governor's office.
21.7, in Kastamonu, seven officials of the
Atatürkist Thought Association (ADD) are tried by a penal court for
having put a poster on the association's wall with a sentence from
Atatürk's speeches. Each faces prison term of up to one year.
22.7, in Adana, Muzaffer Adiyaman who was detained
on June 24 claims to have been tortured and violated for 21 days by
policemen at the city's security headquarters.
22.7, in Antakya, nine HADEP members are taken into
custody on charges of taking part in PKK activities.
22.7, the local chairman of the Democracy and Peace
Party (DBP) Veli Koparan and two other party officials are detained in
Hakkari. Same day, a former HADEP official, Ekrem Kaya, is detained in
Istanbul together with his wife, mother and daughter.
24.7, in Istanbul, eleven people are taken to police
custody for taking part in the activities of the Union of Revolutionary
Communists of Turkey (TIKB).
28.7, thirteen Islamist militants are indicted for
the assassination of journalist Cetin Emec, writer Turan Dursun and an
opponent of the Iranian regime. Two of the accused face capital
28.7, security forces detain ten people in Istanbul
and thirteen people in Ankara for taking part in DHKP-C activities.
30.7, security forces announce the arrest of about
ten EP officials in Kocaeli, Adapazari, Gebze and Karadeniz Ereglisi.
Same day HADEP Istanbul Secretary Cemal Coskun is taken into custody.
31.7, in Iskenderun, six people are taken into
police custody on charges of taking part in the activities of the
Marxist-Leninist Communist Party (MLKP) and the TIKKO.
RECENT FIGURES OF THE VIOLATION OF THE FREEDOM OF OPINION
According to a survey published on August 8 by the
daily Cumhuriyet, the number of the prisoners of opinion in Turkey rose
to 150 in the first half of 1996. This number was 100 in 1994 and 121
Despite the modification of Article 8 of the
Anti-Terror Law, the sentences, both demanded and given against the
accused, have considerably increased instead of decreasing. In six
months, prosecutors have asked a total of 877 years imprisonment for
opinion crimes and tribunals pronounced a total of 140 years
imprisonments. The total of the demanded imprisonments for opinion
crimes was 1081 years in 1994 and 1712 years in 1995. The total of the
pronounced imprisonments for the same crimes was 533 years and 5 months
in 1994, and 172 years and 8 months in 1995.
Cumhuriyet also reports that among the prisoners of
opinion are five former DEP deputies, Orhan Dogan, Leyla Zana, Hatip
Dicle, Selim Sadak, Sirri Sakik; HADEP leaders; sociologist Ismail
Besikci, journalist Isik Yurtcu, members of the musical groups
Kutupyildizi, Yorum, Özgürlük Türküsü and Munzur.
On the other hand, the Ankara branch of the
Journalists' Trade Union of Turkey (TGS), in a report made public on
August 12, gave the following 6-month data concerning the violation of
press freedom from January 1 to June 30, 1996:
Journalist assassinated: 1
Journalist victim of terror: 1
Journalists aggressed: 2
Journalists attacked by security forces: 17
Journalists attacked by party officials: 2
Journalists attacked by unidentified people: 2
Attacks on journalist's house or car: 2
Journalist beaten by newspaper manager: 1
Journalists taken into custody: 38
Journalists under court arrest: 6
Journalists kidnapped: 2
Raids on newspaper offices: 5
Journalist association raided by police: 1
Bans on publication: 3
Bans on radio-TV broadcasting: 7
Radio banned indefinitely: 1
Warning to radio-TV: 4
Direct censorship by Prime Minister: 1
Tribunals have given, in that period, a total of 3
years, four days and 10 days imprisonment and a total fine of TL 256
million for writers and publishers. Besides, owners of newspapers and
magazines have been sentenced a total fine of TL 3 billion 278 million.
According to another report issued by the
Journalists' Association of Turkey on July 15, the number of the
journalists sentenced to prison in the first half of 1996 reached 44
and the newly opened or ongoing trials against journalists in the same
period rose to 33. The number of the journalists or writers detained or
placed under arrest in six months reached 73. Of the accused
journalists, fourteen have been tried by state security courts or
military courts. Authorities confiscated eight books and 33 newspapers
or magazines in the same period. Tribunals have decided to ban the
publications of 12 different periodicals.
PUBLISHER AYSE ZARAKOLU IMPRISONED AGAIN
The editor of the Belge Publishing House Mrs. Ayse
Nur Zarakolu was put in prison on August 29 for serving a prison term.
She was sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to a 113-day imprisonment for
having published Faysal Dagli's book entitled Birakuji - The Civil War
of Kurds. The court condemned Zarakolu for a 7-page reportage within
the 300-page book.
On the ratification of the sentence by the Court of
Cassation, Zarakolu was arrested and sent to the Sagmalcilar Special
Type Prison in Istanbul.
As entering the prison, Zarakolu said: "The book was
written by a journalist. The book's subject is the civil war happened
in the Kurdish region of Iraq in 1992. A reportage with the commander
of the Kurdish organization ARGK was considered as a crime.
"Yesterday the word Kurd was forbidden. Ismail
Besikci was tried and sentenced for having used this word. However,
today almost all of the political parties have issued a report on the
Kurdish Question. Many of them are talking of a peaceful solution. To
seek a peaceful solution means to accept the existence of a war. Since
this fact is admitted by all the people, how can a book on this war be
considered as a crime? Then, all political trials concerning the
Kurdish Question should immediately be lifted."
On the other hand, the Istanbul SSC sentenced
Zarakolu on July 31, 1996, to a prison term of six months and a fine of
TL 50 million for having published former Diyarbakir Mayor Mehdi Zana's
book entitled Dear Leyla, That Night Was a Long Exile. The tribunal
also issued a warrant of arrest in absentia for Zana who was at a
voyage in Europe at that time.
Zarakolu will be tried for a second time on
September 11 by the Istanbul SSC for having published Yves Ternon's
book on the Armenian Genocide.
TRIAL ON METIN GÖKTEPE'S ASSASSINATION KIDNAPPED
On 15 July 1996, a delegation from RSF attended the
opening in Istanbul of the trial of the policemen accused of beating
journalist Metin Göktepe to death on 8 January 1996.
The trial was transferred to the city of Aydin, some
400 miles from Istanbul, for security reasons. RSF is concerned at the
pressure on one of the main defence witnesses, Deniz Ozcan, who was
kidnapped and suffered ill treatment for two days.
RSF has appealed to Turkish and European authorities
expressing deep regret that the trial was transferred to Aydin;
expressing concern at the pressure on the main defence witness; noting
that the progress of the trial will be a test of the Turkish
authorities' commitment to democratic principles and to international
agreements; and urging that European authorities ensure that the trial
follows the basic rules of international law.
Evrensel journalist Metin Göktepe, aged 27, died in
suspicious circumstances after being detained by police on 8 January,
POLICE ATTACK TO JOURNALISTS' ASSOCIATION
On the afternoon of 15 July 1996, police officers
beat five photographers and reporters who were covering a demonstration
against police brutality held in front of the office of the Governor of
Istanbul. According to eyewitness accounts, policemen intentionally
targeted journalists, beating them and breaking their cameras.
Several reporters fled the police and took shelter
in the office of the Turkish Journalists Association. Three police
officers chased these journalists. The officers forced their way into
the office of the Association.
The Secretary General of the Journalists
Association, Leyla Tavsanoglu, objected to the police raid and told the
policemen that they were pursuing legitimate journalists. The policemen
told her that the journalists were terrorists. The
policemen proceeded to drag several journalists out of the
Association's office. Among those beaten and detained were Ms. Hatice
Tuncer, a reporter for the daily newspaper Cumhuriyet, and Ms. Sevil
Erdogan, a reporter for the daily Siyah Beyaz. The journalists were
In a press release, the Committee to Protect
Journalists points out that this is not an isolated incident. CPJ wrote
to Turkish authorities in March about a similar attack by police. Since
then, CPJ has documented two additional incidents of police harassing
and detaining journalists who were trying to cover breaking news.
A TURKISH JOURNALIST ASSASSINATED IN CYPRUS
Kutlu Adali, editorial writer for the Turkish
Cypriot daily Yeni Düzen, an organ of the left-wing Turkish Republican
Party (CTP), was shot dead outside his home in the Turkish sector of
Nicosia, in the early hours of 7 July 1996.
According to Reporters sans frontières (RSF), he was
hit in the head and died instantly. A left-wing intellectual who often
criticised political figures in his editorials, Kutlu Adali had been
receiving death threats. He was known as an advocate of peaceful
co-operation with the Greek-dominated State of Cyprus.
In Nicosia, an anonymous caller telephoned the
editorial staff of the newspaper Kibris to claim responsibility for the
killing, saying the murder was committed on the orders of the extreme
right-wing group the Turkish Revenge Brigade.
According to the Committee to Protect Journalists,
the Turkish Revenge Brigade first emerged several months ago when it
circulated pamphlets in Northern Cyprus warning it would punish those
who oppose the cause of the Turks in Cyprus.
NEW SENTENCES AGAINST ISMAIL BESIKCI
Although already sentenced to hundreds years of
prison, sociologist Ismail Besikci is still being tried and sentenced
by extraordinary courts for his opinion.
Besikci is sentenced on June 22 by the Istanbul SSC
to one year, three months and 16 days in prison and TL 129 million in
fine for an article on individual complaints to the European Human
Rights Commission that he wrote in 1994 to the daily Özgür Ülke.
On June 27, he was sentenced again by the Istanbul
SSC to twenty months in prison and TL 133 million 333 thousand for his
book entitled A Nation Discovering Itself: The Kurds. The tribunal also
sentenced the book's publisher, Ünsal Öztürk, to a fine of TL 50.9
At his second trial because of his book entitled The
Bans Losing Their Function - Bans on Thought, on July 8, Besikci was
sentenced by the Ankara SSC to one-year imprisonment and a fine of TL
145 million. The publisher of the book, Ünsal Öztürk too was sentenced
to a fine of TL 26 million.
As serving his prison terms in the Central Prison of
Ankara, Besikci was transferred to the Metris Prison in Istanbul on
August 20, 1996, because of the fact that his further cases will be
dealt by the State Security Court of Istanbul.
MED-TV BACK ON AIR DESPITE ANKARA'S PRESSURE
On July 2, Kurdish television Med TV's daily
transmissions were stopped due to the pressure of the Turkish State on
the European satellite company Eutelsat. Ankara also put political and
economic pressure on all European countries for denying Med-TV any
access to satellite facilities.
However, after a silence of 45 days, the Med-TV
recommenced regular daily broadcasts on August 15 through the American
satellite company Intelsat.
At a press conference simultaneously held in
Brussels and in London before the restart of the broadcasting, Med-TV
directors said "We are saddened to say that many countries which
declare themselves as democratic have supported Turkey in its efforts
to close Med TV down. Certain companies supplying satellite space
breached their contracts with Med TV because of their own country's
political stance. This goes against the idea of free trade and freedom
of expression. However, Med-TV now has a secure contract with Intelsat
in the USA "
Broadcasting on the first day commenced with news,
music and entertainment. Later, on the anniversary of the PKK's armed
uprising (which began on August 15, 1984), PKK Chairman Öcalan was
invited to a debate programme to discuss the possibility of a peaceful
solution to the Kurdish question in Turkey.
During the first hours of the broadcast,
transmissions were illegally jammed by an unidentified extern
interference. However, Intelsat immediately took steps to alleviate the
Med-TV director Ilhan Kizilhan said: "This kind of
jamming broadcast did not occur for the first time. Earlier, on
December 15, 1995, our broadcasts had been jammed in the same manner.
At the time, Med-TV was transmitting a programme on the possible
peaceful settlement to the Kurdish issue in Turkey. We suspect that the
Turkish State is responsible for the illegal attempts to silence
Med-TV. Earlier this year, certain Turkish newspapers reported that the
state is entitled to use such methods and the occupied northern part of
Cyprus is used as the headquarters for such operations."
TWO-MONTH PRESSURE ON THE MEDIA
1.6, the weeklies Aydinlik and Sosyalist Iktidar are
confiscated by a penal court of Istanbul for having criticised the
Minister of Justice. Same day, the periodical Tavir is confiscated by
the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
2.6, the periodical Özgür Gelecek, N°76 is
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for the propaganda of an outlawed
3.6, a book entitled The History of Human Rights,
written by the IHD Deputy Secretary Hasan Anar, is confiscated by
the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
4.6, a book of memoirs, HEP, DEP and the State-From
Parliament to Prison, written by former Kurdish deputy Mahmut Alinak,
is confiscated by a penal court of Istanbul on charges of insulting the
National Assembly, state security forces, the government and the
5.6, the periodical Özgür Genclik, N°24, is
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC on charges of revolutionary propaganda.
5.6, the projection of a film entitled Istanbul is
under my wings is forbidden in Kayseri by the decision of the city
mayor. This film, directed by Mustafa Altioklar, comments a period of
the Ottoman Empire with a view contrary to the Islamist interpretation.
7.6, in Izmir, a concert of famous folk singer
Ferhat Tunc is banned by the governor's office.
8.6, the periodical Söz, N°69, is confiscated by the
Istanbul SSC under Article 8.
8.6, in the province of Cizre, the headman of the
village of Yesilyurt, Abdurrahman Mustak, is indicted for having
listened to the Kurdish MED-TV. Listening to this radio was banned on
February 5, 1996, by the Super Governor of the Emergency Law Region.
Mustak faces a prison term of up to six months for contravening this
9.6, a book entitled To A Young Businessman, written
by Emre Yilmaz, is confiscated by a penal court of Istanbul for
containing some chapters against public morality.
9.6, the Higher Board of Radio and Television (RTÜK)
decides to ban the emission of Kanal D TV for one day on charges of
broadcasting a programme incompatible with the bans of the electoral
10.6, a penal court of Ankara takes a decision to
prevent the weekly Aydinlik from publishing a news report about the
Justice Minister Mehmet Agar's relations with the Turkish mafia.
10.6, three officials of the Mesopotamia Cultural
Centre (MKM), Vehbiye Tüzün, Serhat Karatas and Erdal Ceviz as well as
an official of the Kurdish Institute, Mehmet Safi Ekinci, are taken
into police custody in Istanbul.
10.6, correspondent Irmak Ugurlu from the periodical
Özgür Atilim is taken into police custody as covering a meeting at a
graveyard of Istanbul, organized for commemorating the victims of
disappearances under custody.
11.6, a correspondent of the periodical Kurtulus,
Arzu Uzun, is taken into custody in istanbul together with her mother
11.6, a correspondent of the periodical Özgür
Gelecek, Zeynel Salt is kidnapped by four unidentified gunmen in
Istanbul. He is released after being beaten for three hours.
11.6, Kurdish writer Recep Marasli and a former DEP
official, Abdulcabbar Gezici, are sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to 20
months in prison and TL 133 million in fine each under Article 8 for
their talks at a Kanal 6 TV programme on the Kurdish Question. As for
the program-makers, Ahmet Alktan and Nese Düzel, they are acquitted.
12.6, Erzincan correspondent of the daily Demokrasi,
Düzgün Akbaba is detained by a military team raiding his house.
13.6, the projection of the film entitled Istanbul
is under my wings is forbidden in Urfa by the decision of the city
15.6, the Istanbul SSC bans the publication of the
periodical Emekcinin Alinteri for one month. The last issue of the
periodical Proleter Halkin Birligi is confiscated by the same tribunal
for separatist propaganda.
17.6, the Higher Board of Radio and Television
(RTÜK) decides to ban the emissions of Inter Star TV for three days,
Kanal D, ATV and Show TV for one day each.
17.8, security forces prevented two picnics
organized for their readers by the periodical Alinteri in Silifke and
by Kurtulus in Gaziantep.
19.6, three Evrensel correspondents, Mete Karakul,
Cengiz Simsek and Baris Erbektas are taken into custody as covering the
arrest of the parents of prisoners in front of the DYP office in
19.6, a local correspondent of the daily Demokrasi,
Ömer Faruk Kaynak is detained in Urfa. Same day, in Ankara, Aksam
correspondent Fehmi Calmuk and two Interstar TV correspondents, Ahmet
Takan and Noyan Inal, are taken into custody as covering the works of
forming a new coalition government.
20.6, the last issue of the daily Evrensel is
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for an article criticising the Justice
Minister. The June issue of the periodical Kervan is confiscated by a
penal court of Istanbul for containing articles concerning the
anniversary of the historical workers' resistance of 1970.
21.6, the publisher of a book entitled Introduction
to the Kurdish Literature, Yusuf Yesilöz is taken into custody when he
comes to Istanbul Airport from Switzerland. For this book, the Istanbul
SSC had already issued a warrant of arrest in absentia.
21.6, Four members of the musical group Yorum, Kemal
Sahir Gürel, Ufuk Göker, Irsad Aydin and Özcan Senver are again taken
23.6, the periodicals Odak, N°55 and Öncü Yurtsever
Genclik, N°1, are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for separatist
23.6, the Adana office of the periodical Kurtulus is
raided by police and all the material inside confiscated. An employee;
Yildiz Gemicioglu, is taken into custody.
24.6, the last issues of the periodicals Kurtulus,
Özgür Atilim and Genclik are confiscated by the Istanbul SSC.
25.6, the projection of the film entitled Istanbul
is under my wings is forbidden in Balikesir and Meram by the decision
of the city mayors.
26.6, the chief editor of the periodical Odak, Erhan
Duman is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to one year in prison and TL 100
million in fine for separatist propaganda. The tribunal also decides to
suspend the publication of the review for one month.
26.6, two Adana correspondents of the periodical
Zafer Yolunda Kurtulus, Yildiz Gemicioglu and Mehmet Kargilar, are
arrested in Adana.
27.6, Demokrasi correspondent Menaf Avci and three
employees of the same newspaper, Semsettin Yildirim, Haci Osman Sarban
and Ali Kocyigit, are taken into custody as going to their homes in
28.6, in an extended raid operation, security forces
detain following journalists: Demokrasi correspondents Abdullah Kaplan,
Turabi Sen and Nurcan Turgut in Elazig, Özgür Halk correspondents Emin
Konan and Seher Sabit in Elazig, Özgür Halk correspondent Dilber
Aydemir in Adana, Özgür Atilim editor Mustafa Süke in Istanbul,
Kurtulus correspondent Mehmet Balci in Gaziantep and Kurtulus
correspondent Ferit Yildiz in Antakya.
28.6, a concert organized in Samandag by the
periodical Insancil and the Samandag Popular House is forbidden by the
decision of the Hatay governor. Authorities also forbid a theatre
representation on Nazim Hikmet in Gebze and a cultural evening for the
newspaper Evrensel in Zile.
1.7, poet Abdullah Riza Ergüven is sentenced by a
penal court of Istanbul to twenty months in prison for insulting the
religion in his book entitled Forbidden Sentences. The publisher of the
book, Ismet Arslan too is sentenced to the same imprisonment, but this
punishment is later commuted to a fine.
2.7, in Izmir, during a meeting in commemoration of
the Sivas Massacre, security forces attack journalists and wound Arif
Cayan (Ege TV), Dilek Eski (Gazete) and Necati Aygin (Cumhuriyet).
2.7, the periodical Kurtulus, N°52, is confiscated
by the Istanbul SSC for the propaganda of an outlawed organization.
3.7, the Istanbul SSC decides to suspend the
publication of the periodical Atilim for one month on charges of
4.7, two members of the musical group Yorum, Kemal
Sahir Gürel and Ufuk Satilmis Lüker, are placed under arrest on charges
of being members of an underground organization.
5.7, the former editor of the periodical Kizil
Bayrak, Güray Ülkü is sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to four months in
prison. The tribunal also decides to ban the periodical's publication
for three months.
5.7, poet and writer Yilmaz Odabasi is indicted for
having criticised in the periodical Özgür Yasam the harassment of the
HADEP. Facing a prison term of up to one year, Odabasi will be tried by
a criminal court in Istanbul.
5.7, the responsible editor of the defunct Kurdish
newspaper Roj, Mustafa Yilmaz is taken into custody.
6.7, Odak Adana correspondent Mahir Yilmaz Sari,
detained on June 3, claims to have been tortured in police custody.
6.7, in Iskenderun, Ersen Korkmaz, founder of the
newspaper Demokrat Iskenderun and Iskenderun correspondent of the daily
Evrensel, is stabbed by a group of Grey Wolves.
6.7, the last issue of the daily Evrensel is
confiscated by the Istanbul SSC for containing a reportage with a
former police agent revealing the provocation by State forces. The
issue N°52 of the periodical Kurtulus too is confiscated by the same
tribunal for the propaganda of the DHKP-C.
10.7, the daily Evrensel is confiscated by the
Istanbul SSC for having published a declaration of German deputy Cem
Özdemir. The same tribunal also decides to ban the publication of the
periodicals Özgür Halk and Proleter Halkin Birligi for one month. The
latter is sentenced to a fine of TL 42.4 million as well.
11.7, the Istanbul SSC sentences the daily Evrensel
to a total fine of TL 735 million 851 thousand 250 (±$ 9 thousand) for
some articles published in three different issues.
11.7, the chief editor of the women review Roza,
Fatma Kayhan is brought before the Istanbul SSC for separatist
11.7, in Istanbul, Evrensel correspondents Mustafa
Kara, Zafer Kütük and Mehmet Fatih Yurt, are taken into custody by
police raiding their houses.
12.7, the periodical Yeniden Newroz is confiscated
by the Istanbul SSC for separatist propaganda.
12.7, the responsible editor of the periodical
Hedef, Celal Dönmez, and an Alinteri correspondent, Pervin Abduloglu,
are taken into custody in Istanbul.
12.7, the prosecutor of the Diyarbakir SSC starts a
legal action against the local Can TV for having used Kurdish music in
some of its programmes.
13.7, in Adana, periodical Azadiye Welat distributor
Mesut Aslan is taken into custody.
13.7, Özgür Atilim correspondent Ferhat Akcay takes
a medical certificate confirming that he was beaten and wounded on July
11 as covering a protest action in Istanbul.
14.7, Alinteri Ceyhan representative and IHD
official Süleyman Aksoydan is taken into police custody in Adana.
15.7, the Istanbul SSC confiscates Proleter Halkin
Birligi, N°17, and Kurtulus, N°53, for separatism and propaganda of
15.7, it is the first time that a TV programme is
banned directly by the decision of the Prime Minister. Premier Erbakan,
using his power given by Article 25 of the Radio-TV Law, bans Interstar
TV to put on the air a reportage with the hunger strikers.
16.7, security forces detain Kurtulus correspondent
Deniz Fidan and Atilim correspondent Vahit Yurttas in Ankara, and
Evrensel correspondent Sevda Cetinkaya in Gaziantep.
16.7, the head office of the daily Evrensel in
Istanbul is raided by police on pretext of searching a wanted person.
16.7, socialist leader and writer Mihri Belli is
sentenced by the Istanbul SSC to one year and 40 days in prison and TL
111 million in fine for an article he wrote to the defunct Özgür Ülke.
The execution of the punishment is later suspended for five years.
16.7, six EP militants are sentenced by the Izmir
SSC to two years in prison each for having put the party's posters on
walls in Izmir.
17.7, the chairman of the Workers' Party (IP), Dogu
Perincek is sentenced by a penal court of Ankara to nine months in
prison for having insulted the Constitutional Court in a press
conference. The prison term is later commuted into a fine of TL 2.7
17.7, Özgür Halk Diyarbakir correspondent Necmiye
Arslanoglu is detained by police raiding her house.
18.7, Alinteri, N°76 is confiscated by the Istanbul
SSC for the propaganda of an outlawed organization.
18.7, Partizan Sesi correspondents Özlem Akin and
Hakan Oksar are taken into custody in Istanbul as covering a meeting in
solidarity with hunger strikers.
20.7, a special issue of Özgür Gelecek on hunger
strikes is confiscated by the Istanbul SSC on charges of instigating
the people to hatred.
22.7, the RTÜK decides to suspend the broadcasting
of Kanal D and Flash TV for two days, Kanal 6, Cine 5 and Show TV for
one day. Besides, the Can TV in Diyarbakir receives a warning from the
RTÜK for having used Kurdish songs in its programmes.
23.7, in Antakya, the office of Kurtulus is raided
by police. The Istanbul SSC confiscates the periodicals Uzun Yürüyüs,
N°5, Emek, N°45, and Roj, N°24, for separatist propaganda.
23.7, in Bursa, police raid Alinteri office and
detain two correspondents, Özgür Akbaba and Sabahat Yaman.
24.7, police raiding the office of the periodical
Kurtulus detain 15 people.
25.7, in Istanbul, the public prosecutor starts a
legal action against the administrators of the Pir Sultan Abdal
Cultural Association for having supported a workers' resistance last
year. Among the accused is also famous theatre and cinema actor Ilyas
25.7, Devrimci Emek, N°45, is confiscated by the
Istanbul SSC for propaganda of an underground organization.
26.7, a correspondent of the Anka News Agency, Ebru
Dönmezoglu is beaten by police in Ankara as covering a protest action
of the relatives of prisoners.
28.7, the Istanbul SSC confiscates two last issues
of the daily Evrensel and the issue N°18 of the periodical Proleter
Halkin Birligi for articles concerning hunger strikes.
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ACTIONS ON TURKEY
In view of the critical situation in Turkey, on July
24, the Chairman of the foreign affairs committee, Mr Gerardo
Fernandez-Albor (EPP, E), sending a letter to Commissioner Hans van den
Broek, strongly urged the EC Commission to draw up a mid-term report on
the human rights situation in Turkey before Parliament's September
Parliament's assent to the EU/Turkey customs union
was conditional on such a report being submitted each year - a
condition which the Commission accepted.
Mr Fernandez-Albor also called on the Commissioner
to put pressure on the Turkish authorities with a view to improving
Earlier, The European Parliament, at its June 20
session, adopted the following resolution on human rights and the
situation in Turkey:
"The European Parliament,
"- having regard to the human rights clause included
in the proposal for a Council Regulation regarding the implementation
of a special financial cooperation measure for Turkey,
"- having regard to the Barcelona Declaration of
which Turkey is a signatory,
"A. anxious to achieve good relations with Turkey,
but recalling its numerous previous resolutions on human rights and
statements made by the Turkish authorities prior to the approval of the
Customs Union, promising improvements,
"B. deeply concerned at the recent military
operations undertaken by the Turkish armed forces in Eastern Turkey and
the refusal to attempt to achieve a peaceful settlement despite the
declaration of a cease-fire by the PKK on 15 December 1995,
"C. whereas Kurdish prisoners in many Turkish
prisons have been on hunger strike in protest against repressive
measures introduced by Mr Mehmet Agar, formerly Chief of Security and
subsequently Minister of Justice,
"D. concerned by reports that medical treatment is
being obstructed and that the health of various prisoners participating
in the prison hunger strike is now in grave danger,
"E. deeply concerned by reports of ill-treatment
against prisoners which, inter alia, has resulted in four deaths in
January 1996 in Istanbul's prison,
"F. deeply disturbed by the fact that the former
Members of Parliament of Kurdish origin, Leyla Zana, Hatip Dicle, Selim
Sadak and Orhan Dogan have still not been released from prison, and
have joined the hunger strike by other political prisoners,
"G. unable to accept that the prosecutions of the
writer Yasar Kemal and the sociologist Ismail Besikci and the treatment
of political prisoners in general are compatible with internationally
accepted standards of human rights,
"H. condemning the bans on assembly and
demonstration, the violence, the arrests and baton charges by the
police during the HABITAT II conference,
"I. concerned that the president of the Diyarbakir
medical association and committed human rights activist, Seyfettin
Kizilkan, has been sentenced to over three years' imprisonment by a
state security court, although observers assume that the charges were
"J. taking fully into account the uncertainty
prevailing on the Turkish political scene following the fall of the
present Government and the resignation of the Prime Minister, Mr Mesut
"1. Appeals to the incoming government to commit
itself to recognise and uphold human rights in Turkey, in accordance
with the European Convention on Human Rights of which Turkey is a
signatory, and to undertake further and substantial legislative reforms
required to prevent their infringement;
"2. Requests the new government to declare a general
amnesty designed to secure the release of prisoners convicted of
offences under laws in conflict with the principles of free speech and
human rights and to terminate court actions against those still on
trial, and in particular renews its call for the immediate release of
Mrs Leyla Zana and the three other members of the DEP;
"3. Calls on the Turkish Government to end its
military operations in the southeast of the country and to open
negotiations with all Kurdish organizations in order to overcome the
deadlock and move towards a peaceful political settlement of the
"4. Asks the Turkish authorities to recognise the
rights of all Kurds within Turkey and to facilitate the return of all
displaced Kurds to their homes;
"5. Presses the Council to put the Kurdish issue in
Turkey on the agenda of the OSCE and to seek other ways to promote
initiatives designed to assist in resolving the problems of human
rights and the Kurds in Turkey;
"6. Calls on the new government to take firm steps
to end the practice of torture and to make provision for the
International Red Cross to visit prisons and political prisoners;
"7. Considers that such disregard of obligations
with regard to both international law and human rights instruments, is
seriously inconsistent with the spirit of the EU/Turkey Customs Union,
and therefore calls on the Council and the Commission to urge the
Turkish Authorities to take steps to ensure that ill treatment of
prisoners and the obstruction of medical treatment stops;
"8. Calls on the Commission to meet its commitments
as regards monitoring the human rights situation in Turkey and asks it
to forward the second interim report on human rights in Turkey to
Parliament as soon as possible;
"9. Instructs its President to forward this
resolution to the Council and the Commission, the Government of Turkey,
and to all Member State governments."
OSCE CALLS ON ANKARA TO A PEACEFUL SOLUTION
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for
Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), adopting a resolution at its
meeting of July 9 in Stockholm, called the Turkish Government to a
peaceful solution on the Kurdish Question.
In its resolution, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
"Calls upon the Turkish Government and Parliament to
abolish Article 8 of the Anti-Terror Law, Article 312 of the Penal Code
and other statutes which violate the principle of freedom of expression,
"Urges the Turkish Government to take urgent action
to halt widespread use of torture by police and other officials, and to
end its persecution of medical professionals and NGOs who provide
treatment to victims of torture and expose human rights abuses;
"Calls upon the Turkish Government to promote
economic, social, cultural, legislative and other peaceful means to
solve internal problems, in particular those concerning the Kurdish
population in southeastern Turkey;
"Urges the Turkish Government to establish
consultative mechanisms with non-violent Kurdish-based organizations,
which recognize the territorial integrity of Turkey, to defuse sources
of conflict and propose strategies to resolve the crisis in
AT LAST SHAMEFUL EUROPALIA-TURKEY FESTIVAL CANCELLED
The Europalia-Turkey Festival, already reported from
September 1996 to September 1997, was definitively cancelled by the
decision of The Europalia Foundation on July 17 because of the
difficulties caused by the Turkish side.
The organization of such a festival in the name of a
country where human rights are systematically violated had already
given rise to protests from democratic organizations and personalities.
Info-Türk editor Dogan Özgüden, in an open letter
(Le Soir, December 23, 1994), urged the Belgian opinion that the
festival, if held, was condemned to be a "festival of shame" as long as
intellectuals and artists remain in Turkish prisons and the rights of
other national and religious communities of Turkey are systematically
On reactions, the Belgian authorities refused to
subsidise the organization of the festival and the Europalia Foundation
had to suspend the preparations in March 1995 for "financial reasons."
However, after the ratification of the Customs Union
by the European Parliament, the Belgian authorities, taking no heed of
the systematic violation of human rights in Turkey, gave green light
for an Europalia-Turkey in 1997.
Despite this unbelievable European capitulation,
Turkish side has never fulfilled its financial and cultural commitments
until July 1, 1996, an ultimate date for the start of organization, and
the Belgian side had to abandon this shameful project.
The Commissioner of the Europalia Festival,
Ambassador Jan Hollants Van Loocke said at a press conference: "After a
profound examination and consultation with the interested circles, it
was decided to report sine die Europalia 97 Türkiye. It means a long
By creating themselves the reasons for the
cancellation of a festival which would have served to the propaganda of
their own repressive regime, Turkish authorities have proved once more
how far are they credible in their cooperation with their foreign
What is the most important for Belgium, it has saved
itself, if not voluntarily, from the shame of giving an international
rostrum to the only repressive regime of Europe.
RISE OF TURKISH BUSINESSMEN IN EUROPE
The number of Turkish citizens living in
Western European countries who seek to become self-employed is rapidly
increasing and has already risen to more than 50 thousand. .
Turkish businessmen are no longer just involved in
the sectors of the economy that traditionally have been their domain,
such as restaurants and catering but are investing in many different
areas. This development is closely related to the creativity of the
second and third generation Turks who have grown up largely in Europe.
It is also very interesting that the target group of customers for
these businesses are not solely Turks any more.
Presently they have joined under two umbrella
associations. The Federation of Turkish-German Businessmen Associations
(TIDAF) includes many businessmen organizations from the different
regions of Germany. Another organization is the Association of Turkish
Businessmen in Europe (ATIAD).
According to the data of the Centre for Studies on
Turkey in Essen, 49,300 Turkish migrants have established their own
businesses throughout Europe. 40,500 of them are in Germany. There are
also 3,300 Turkish businessmen in France, 2,600 in Netherlands, 2,000
in England and 900 in Belgium.
The total investment by these businessmen in Germany
has reached 8.3 billion DM and the total turnover is 34 billion DM.
These businessmen have also created new work places, providing jobs to
According to the data given by the ATIAD on February
21, 1996, the number of Turkish businessmen in Europe rises to 55,000.
The total investment by these businessmen in Europe has reached 12
billion DM and the total turnover is 45 billion DM. They have created
works for 180 thousand people in Europe.
In another survey by the Centre for Studies on
Turkey, a majority of the 14,500 Turkish university students in
Germany indicate that, although they believe that chances for
employment and conditions in Turkey are good, they desire to work in
Germany in the future.
TIHV REPORT ON DEATHS IN TURKISH PRISONS
The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TIHV) issued
in March 1996 a new File Of Torture, detailing deaths in detention
places or prisons in Turkey from September 12, 1980, to September 12,
Below we are reproducing the chapter concerning the
situation of Turkish prison which is the principal reason of the recent
hunger strikes ended in the death of twelve political prisoners:
Inhuman prison conditions
With the 12 September Military Coup, policy of
systematic extermination and pressure was put into practice in prisons.
The prisons were turned into places where the most cruel attacks,
pressure, torture and inhuman applications were carried out in the
guise of "military discipline". Because of such applications in the
prisons, tens of people died or were killed, tens of others were
crippled (12 of them in then Diyarbakir Military Prison), while the
number of prison prisoners who got permanent illnesses was incredibly
high . Torture and inhuman applications in the Erzurum Dagkapi, Ankara
Mamak Istanbul Metris and Diyarbakir military prisons reached an
[Torture cases, systematic extermination practices,
brutal murders in the prisons were also witnessed following the 12
September military coup. However, this time the military prisons were
replaced by the prisons of the Ministry of Justice, i.e. "civilian"
prisons. Convicted and arrested prisoners transferred from the
Eskisehir Special Type Prison to the Aydin E Type Prison, were
ruthlessly beaten by the personnel of the prison they had been sent to
on 2 August 1989. Due to the beating, 2 arrested prisoners, Mehmet
Yalcinkaya and Huseyin Hüsnü Eroglu died, 6 arrested prisoners got
wounded. The attempt to take away an arrested prisoner in the
Diyarbakir E Type Prison for a new interrogation on 3 October 1994 upon
directives by the Public Prosecution Office, provoked incidents. Other
prisoners, protesting the attempt to take away the arrested prisoner,
erected barricades in front of the doors and started a resistance
movement. Upon this, on 4 October an operation was carried out against
the wings where the resistance continued. During the operation, an
arrested prisoner named Ramazan Ozuak suffocated to death as he was
stuck, over 50 prisoners were injured (some with gunfire), and the
prison was damaged. Some of the prisoners were forcibly transferred to
the Gaziantep E Type Prison on the morning of 5 October. Süleyman
Ongun, one of those wounded, died on 20 January 1995 in the Gaziantep
Prison. Süleyman Ongun who had 20 wounds on his body, had been
receiving treatment at the prison infirmary. Arrested and convicted
prisoners in the Gaziantep Prison declared that Süleyman Ongun had not
been hospitalised even after his condition deteriorated, so that his
wounds had become infected and he had died due to lack of proper care.]
The number of the prisoners who died in the
Diyarbakir Military Prison because of torture, hunger strike, suicide
or negligence was more than 40. In this prison, the prisoners were
subjected to most cruel methods such as forcing to rape each other,
inserting truncheon into anus, making waiting sewer pit.
Pressure and torture in prisons gave way to
resistance. By 1985, many hunger strikes and various resistance acts
were staged in the prisons. Thousands of prison prisoners put their
bodies forward to fight against torture and pressure. The hunger
strikes which continued for weeks and even for months took place in
prisons. As a result of the hunger strikes, a total of 12 people died,
8 of whom in the Diyarbakir Military Prison while the rest in the
Istanbul Sagmalcilar Prison. This number reached 13 when a prisoner in
the Mus E Type Prison died during a hunger strike in 1993.
[Those arrested and convicted because of PKK trials
launched an indefinite/non-alternate hunger strike on 14 July 1995.
Nearly thousand arrested and convicted prisoners serving in more than
20 prisons participated in the hunger strike staged with political
demands. The hunger strike in the prisons was supported by the
relatives of the arrested and convicted prisoners through various acts
such as hunger strikes, sit-in acts in the political party buildings,
marches. Most of the acts confronted intervention by the security
officers, political party buildings were emptied by the police, some
people were beaten, some got wounded. Hundreds of people were detained,
some of the detainees were arrested. The hunger strike which turned
into an indefinite one as of 13 August 1995, ended on 19 August 1995
with a declaration stating that "the protest had achieved its goal".
During the hunger strike, 2 convicts, Fetish Beyazcicek serving in
Yozgat E Type Prison and Remzi Altintas serving in the Amasya E Type
Prison, died. With the death of Fetish Beyazcicek and Remzi Altintas,
the number of those died in the hunger strikes reached 15.]
Efforts in and out of the prisons occasioned a
decrease in torture and pressure. In 1986, torture cases in the prisons
did not stop, but decreased to a great extent. However, poor living
conditions in prisons did not seem to be improved. To wear uniform
cloths was obligatory and because of this application people were tried
and convicted. Books and newspapers were deemed as luxury. Prisoners
could hardly meet and communicate with their families. Health,
nutrition and ventilation problems started to threaten lives of
On demand of improvement in living conditions,
hunger strikes were staged in all of the prisons in the summer of 1987.
Screams of "We want to live as a human being" climbed over the stone
walls of the prisons and spread throughout the country. Relatives of
the prisoners, and human rights activists supported the resistance in
the prisons via the mass activities they organized. Within the
framework of these activities, a group of the prisoners' relatives, who
departed from Istanbul on 28 July 1987 arrived in Ankara after stopping
by Çanakkale, Bursa and Eskisehir. The group was beaten at the entrance
of Ankara and at the gate of the National Assembly to where they wanted
to submit a petition on 1 September, the World Peace Day, on demand of
improvement in prison conditions. Because of the beating, Didar Sensoy,
one of the founding members of the Human Rights Association, died going
into an insulin coma.
The death of Didar Sensoy increased the concern for
the prisons and broke the resistance of the government in charge at
that time insistent on not improving poor living conditions. Certain
measures to improve the prison conditions were put on to the agenda.
Compulsory wearing of the uniform clothes was lifted. Positive changes
were made in the living conditions. However, all of those amendments
were neither sufficient nor permanent. Whatever obtained in consequence
of the activities was attempted to be taken back with a decision known
as "1 August Circular". Thus, the prisons witnessed various activities
in October, November and December. The mass of the activities and the
support by public eventuated in pending of 1 August Circular. The 1
August Circular was put into practice on the pretext of flights from
some prisons m the midst of 1989. The Circular was removed from
practice after lengthy efforts and resistance. However, the prisons
could not attain peace and comfortable living conditions. The
significant increase in the number of prisoners as of 1991, affected
the living conditions negatively. Stability could not be secured in the
prisons. Certain rights given to the prisoners convicted or arrested in
connection with ordinary cases (such as free visits, right to be
transferred to district prisons, being released after serving two fifth
of their imprisonment term) were not granted to political prisoners by
the 'taw to Fight Terrorism" which entered into force on 12 April 1991.
Now, the prisons are still a scene of beatings,
hunger strikes, illegal applications and arbitrary behavior and
continues to be the still-bleeding wound of Turkey. The inhuman
treatment and hunger strikes in the prisons occasion a series of
problems for the relatives of prison prisoners and continue to be a
source of great sorrow.
[Political convicts in the 2nd and 3rd wings of the
Aydin E Type Prison were beaten by the guardians and gendarmes who
entered the wings in question on 24 June 1994. In the incident, 14
people were wounded. The convicts stated that provocation by prison
director caused the incident. After the incident, pressure in the
prison intensified and many rights acquired through hunger strikes by
prisoners were taken back. Thereupon, 102 of the convicts in the prison
went on a hunger strike on 1 July 1994 with the demand of improvement
in living conditions and an end to the pressure. The hunger strike
ended on the evening of 30 July 1994 when negotiations held between the
SHP leaders and Ministry of Justice authorities, and the
representatives of the prisoners resulted in consensus.
On the morning of 19 August 1994, guardians and
gendarmes carried out an operation in the 5th wing of the Ankara
Central Closed Prison where the PKK trial defendants were kept. During
the operation 16 prisoners were wounded and the arm of a guardian was
broken. The incident arose when 3 arrested prisoners, Ibrahim Ata,
Ismet Ayaz and Burhan Altun, were attempted to be transferred to the
Cankiri E Type Prison in order to be put in cells. The official
statement concerning the incident claimed that the incident had arisen
after the prisoners had attempted to revolt. IHD Secretary General
Hüsnü Ondul said: "The attack on the prisoners is publicized as a
revolt. It is obvious that people having no means to defense do not
revolt." On the same days, 4 prisoners were beaten and wounded by the
guardians in the Konya Prison.
About 500 arrested and convicted children at the
Ankara Kecioren Reformatory, rebelled on the night of 12 April 1995
against the ill-treatment by the guardians. The rebellion was put down
by the police that got in the reformatory. During the putting down of
the rebellion, some got wounded and the building was damaged. The
children who spoke to the journalists after the putting down of the
rebellion, stated that their problems were intentionally left unsolved,
and said, "The guardians abuse us sexually. We are continuously beaten
During the operation carried out by the guardians
and the gendarmes against the wings of those arrested or convicted for
political reasons in the Elbistan E Type Prison on 3 May 1995, 10
prisoners were wounded. In protest of the incident, 85 prisoners staged
an alternate hunger strike as of 3 May. The hunger strike ended on the
evening of 9 June 1995 when most of the demands of the arrested and
convicted prisoners were accepted by the prison administration.]
Not only political prisoners but also ordinary ones
have to live in distressing conditions in the prisons. A report
prepared in 1993 by the IHD Istanbul Branch stressed that suppression
and inhuman treatment were applied not only to political prisoners and
that ordinary prisoners were also facing serious problems in the
prisons. The following are some excerpts from the report: "Up till now,
only the situation of political prisoners have been discussed, and what
prisoners accused of ordinary crimes have experienced, has been
ignored. In the wings where the ordinary prisoners and convicts are
kept, a disgusting order has been ruling which is based on the triangle
of administration/guardians, wing leaders and drug mafia. In these
wings, drug trade prevails and the prisoners are encouraged to become
addicts. It is frequently witnessed that juvenile prisoners are
sexually abused and raped. The weak, out of the arrested and convicts,
are forced to give tribute and used as slaves. Problems in the prisons
where ordinary prisoners are kept are consciously neglected." The
report also pointed out that problems in the prisons concerned not only
the relatives of the prisoners, but all people, and particularly the
politicians should handle this issue sensitively.
Sanitary problems and inadequate conditions for
necessary treatment of the arrested and convicted prisoners are among
the vital problems of the prisons. There are numerous prisoners who
died, became crippled or suffered from permanent illnesses because of
poor living conditions, lack of necessary medical means or because of
not being taken to hospital on time.
An important development concerning the prison
prisoners was experienced in 1991. This was the conditional release
application which was brought out by the 'taw to Fight Terrorism" which
entered into force on 12 April 1991. The application foresaw
significant decreases in the sentences passed on the people tried or
convicted because of the crimes committed by 12 April 1991. Thus,
almost half of the prisoners in the prisons (approximately 20.000) were
released. Nevertheless, the application excluded Articles 146 and 125
of the Turkish Penal Code under which left-wing prisoners were
prosecuted or convicted. Therefore only 708 (most of whom were
right-wing) of about 3,500 political prisoners in the prisons at that
time, were released.
With its decision made on 22 July 1991, the
Constitutional Court removed the inequality which arose in connection
with the sentences passed under Article 146 of the Turkish Penal Code.
About 1,500 prisoners benefited from the decision. A thousand of them
were released in August 1991. The Constitutional Court preferred to
keep silent about the cases launched in connection with the Kurdish
organizations, particularly with the PKK, under Article 125 of the
[The decrease in the number of the arrested and
convicted prisoners in the prisons did not last long. The number of the
arrested and convicted prisoners which decreased as to 20 thousand in
1991, increased to 32 thousand by the end of 1993, to 40 thousand by
the end of 1994, and to 50 thousand in 1995. The increase in the number
of the arrested and convicted prisoners for political reasons was more
striking. The number of the political prisoners which was 4,284 in
1993, reached 6,379 in the midst of 1994. This number exceeded 8
thousand by the end of 1994, and 10 thousand by the midst of 1995. This
number was around 900 in November 1991, as the DYP-SHP coalition
government came to power.]
The Constitutional Court did not annul the provision
which foresaw that no defendants tried under Article 125 of the Turkish
Penal Code in connection with the Kurdish organizations, particularly
with the PKK, may benefit from the conditional release, not in 1992
either. The decision was made by 7 votes against 4 votes. According to
the decision, in the trials launched in connection with the Kurdish
organizations, defendants sentenced to death will have to stay in
prison for 20 years instead of 10 years, and defendants life sentenced
will serve in prison for 15 years instead of 8 years. A member of the
Constitutional Court said- "The most important reason for our decision
is that crimes under this article are still committed. The
organizational element of other crimes disappeared, and they became
individual ones. However the number of the crimes under Article 125
which is based on the integrity of Turkey, have not decreased, but on
the contrary increased recently."
This decision has illustrated that two different
standards are used for Turkish and Kurdish organizations, which is in
violation of the equality principle stated in the Constitution.
[After 12 September 1995, the prisons became a scene
for bloody incidents and widespread actions. The roll call prevention
act by those kept under arrest for political reasons in the Izmir Buca
Closed Prison, which had started on 19 September 1995 to protest
certain practices in prison, was repressed with a bloody operation on
21 September. During the incidents 3 prisoners died and 58 prisoners
were injured, 25 of whom severely. The autopsy performed on the killed
prisoners Ugur Sanaslan, Yusuf Bag and Turan Kilinç revealed that all
the three prisoners had died because of brain haemorrhage and in
internal bleeding due to beating. The physicians who performed the
autopsy stated that the traces on the corpses and the breaks in the
bones of the dead had proved that the prisoners had been ruthlessly
beaten, and noted "suspicious death" on the autopsy reports. The
official complaints lodged ended in vain.
During the incidents that broke out in the Istanbul
Umraniye Special Type Prison on 13 December 1995, 14 gendarmes, 12
policemen, 2 guardians and 36 arrested and convicted prisoners were
either wounded or poisoned due to the gas bombs. The incidents calmed
down at about 4.00 p.m. on 15 December. However, the problems
experienced in prisons continued and tension went on. Tension in prison
caused bloody incidents on 4 January 1996. During the incidents which
broke out when the gendarmes carried out an operation in the morning
and at noon against 2 wings in the prison, 3 arrested prisoners named
Abdulmecit Seckin, Orhan Ozen and Riza Boybas, were beaten to death
while 36 arrested or convicted prisoners, 21 gendarmes and 10 guardians
got wounded. The result of the autopsies on Abdulmecit Seckin, Orhan
Ozen and Riza Boybas showed that "internal bleeding in brain, fractures
and caving at skull due to blow to head with an hard object" had caused
the deaths. The heads and faces of the killed people were reportedly
torn to pieces in a manner that it would be difficult to identify them.
Gültekin Beyhan who got wounded during the incidents lost his life on
11 January 1996, and thereby the number of killed during the incidents
increased to four. The official complaints lodged ended in vain.]
Deaths in detention places or prisons
The most evident characteristics of the systematic
application of torture in Turkey is the deaths in detention places or
prisons. This case became more evident as of the 12 September Military
Coup and the number of those killed under torture is too high to count.
Torture turned into a habit of primitive, primary and extrajudicial
Deaths because of torture were not limited to the
military junta period. When the cases of deaths, detailed breakdown and
full list of which are placed on the following pages, are examined, it
will be apparent that the applications during the junta period and the
deaths because of torture continued during the period of the subsequent
governments. The evaluation as to the cases of deaths is as follows:
• A total of 434 people died during the 15-year
period between 12 September 1980 and 12 September l995. 419 of those
people died in detention places or prisons and 15 of them during the
hunger strikes staged on the demand of improvement of inhuman living
conditions in prisons. When we add the previous figure to the number of
people who died (a total of 26) because of illnesses due to torture in
detention places or prisons or because they could not receive necessary
medical treatment, a black balance sheet displaying the deaths of 460
people during the last 15 years appears. When we take into
consideration that the number of the people who died or were killed
because of torture in detention places or prisons between 1968-1980,
the period during which Turkey witnessed various political
fluctuations, was about 20, we will realise that torture has been
applied without any restraints since 12 September Military Coup.
• 190 out of 460 death cases were witnessed during
the junta period between 12 September 1980 and 12 December 1983, 162 of
them during the period under the power of the ANAP between 13 December
1983 and 20 November 1991, and 108 of them during the True Path
Party-the Social Democratic Populist Party coalition government.
• 252 of the death cases were between 12 September
1980 and the end of 1985. Starting from 1986 to the end of 1990, there
was a decrease in the deaths because of torture (a total of 81 people).
Death cases started to increase as of 1991 (a total of 127 people).
This situation showed that being a signatory to some international
accords, opening for international inspection on the subject of
torture, lifting Articles 141, 142 and 163 of the Turkish Penal Code or
making certain legal arrangements such as the Code of Criminal
Procedures (CMUK) were of no use for prevention of torture.
• 359 of those who died, were detained or put into
prison because of political crimes while 101 of them because of
• Courts, prosecution offices or other authorised
offices accepted that 70 of 419 people (this number does not include
those who died during hunger strikes or because of illnesses due to
torture) who died in detention places or prison, had been killed under
torture. Besides, 9 people committed suicide in protest of torture and
• 80 of the remaining 340 people allegedly
"committed suicide", 29 of them were allegedly "shot while escaping or
being tried to be caught", 9 of them allegedly "became victims of
murders by unknown assailants". Either various allegations were made
(such as "Fell sick and died.", "Was never detained" or "Died during a
hunger strike.") or no official information was given about the
remaining 222 people.
• As a result of the concluded trials, condemnation
was passed in connection with only 26 death cases. In 6 death cases,
courts accepted the affect of torture in the deaths, however prosecuted
security officers were acquitted due to lack of evidence. Trials
concerning about 30 cases of death are under way.
Approach of the authorities towards the cases of
deaths in detention places or prisons was not so different from that
towards torture cases which are summarized in the first section. Cases
of deaths were not seriously investigated, offenders were not condemned
in a real sense. Imprisonment terms passed on the offenders were no
more than 1 year or 2 years. Condemned officers who escaped were
connived. Attempts to cover up the cases of deaths with trivial
justifications also showed themselves during the activities directed
towards international organizations and public opinion. For example; in
the report submitted by Turkey to the United Nations in October 1990 in
accordance with the "Convention Against Torture", it was alleged that
many people claimed to have been tortured to death, had died because of
illnesses such as AIDS, tuberculosis which had been verified by medical
Turkey undersigned the UN Convention for Prevention
of Torture in 1988, and submitted the report she prepared in accordance
with Article 19 of the Convention, to the United Nations 22 months
after she signed the Convention. Many parts of the report formed of 3
sections and 79 articles, contained repetition of the provisions
concerning torture and ill-treatment in the Constitution and laws and
of the signed international conventions. In the report, no measures
against torture cases were mentioned and it was defended that the
existing laws were efficient for prevention of torture. The report
exemplified only 3 deaths because of torture, without giving the names
of victims, and stated that at the end of the trials launched in
connection with the 3 death cases, it was decided to pay compensation
to the families of the victims who had died under torture. It was also
stated in the report that 508 trials had been launched in 1989 in
connection with torture claims and 15 police officers had been
sentenced to various imprisonment terms.
[This approach was reflected in a signaller way in
all official statements, in reports submitted and answers given to the
international organizations. All of the studies conducted in connection
with the torture cases in Turkey were falsified on such grounds as
"Exaggerated", "Written under the influence of groups of state
opponents", or "Are not true."]
BALANCE SHEET OF TORTURE FOLLOWING THE 12 SEPTEMBER COUP
Deaths in detention places or
prisons Deaths during hunger
strikes Seaths due to illnesses because of
1980 : 43 -
(Between 12 September 1980-31 December 1980)
1981 : 73 1
1982 : 49 4
1983 : 20 -
1984 : 23 6
1985 : 27 -
1986 : 19 -
1987 : 18 -
1988 : 14 1
1989 : 11 -
1990 : 12 -
1991 : 21 -
1992 : 17 -
1993 : 29 1
1994 : 34 -
1995 : 9 2
(Between 1 January 1995-12 September 1995) (*)
TOTAL 419 15
(*) Later deaths in detention places or prisons continued
uninterruptedly. For example, Mustafa Akbulut detained by the gendarmes
in the Hisar Hamlet of Pagir Village of Araban, Gaziantep on 23
November 1995; Abdulmenaf Zengin detained by police in the Afetevler
Quarter of Mersin on the night of 18 December 1995; a child named Cetin
Karakoyun (14) detained by police in Mersin on 8 January 1996;
journalist Metin Göktepe detained by police in Istanbul on 8 January
1996; Ali Ormanci detained by police in Bursa on 21 January 1996; Hamdi
Deniz kept in detention at the Kocaeli Derbent Gendarmerie Station on
11 February 1996, lost their lives. Besides, during the operation in
the Izmir Buca Prison on 21 September 1995, arrested prisoners Ugur
Sariaslan, Yusuf Bag and Turan Kiliç; and during the operation in the
Istanbul Umraniye Prison on 4 January 1996, arrested prisoners
Abdulmecit Seckin, Orhan Özen, Riza Boybas and Gültekin Bayhan were
beaten to death.