service on Turkey
Un service d'information
sur la Turquie
Year 21 - N°234
September 97 - February 98
38 rue des Eburons - 1000 Brussels
Tel: (32-2) 215 35 76 - Fax: (32-2) 215 58 60
Chief editor: Dogan
- Responsible editor: Inci Tugsavul
1997: A YEAR OF ISOLATION
As for the earlier years, the year 1997 too has not brought
people of Turkey the chance to have a democratic regime conforming to
norms and to see the dirty war in the East ending in a peaceful
On the contrary, the violations of human rights were carried on with
same rhythm and the military, instead of returning to their barracks,
one more their domination on political, social and cultural life of the
The last four months of 1997 have been marked by a series of
which made clearer the so-called "reformist and secular" Government's
to the military and consequently the isolation of the Ankara regime as
well in Europe as in the Islam world.
Never-ending cross-border operations of the Turkish armed forces
against the Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq territory and Ankara's "military
and intelligence" cooperation with Israel have led to such a big
in the Moslem and Arab world that the President of the Republic
Demirel had to leave the Islam Summit Conference in Iran.
As for the relations with Europe, the Turkish diplomacy
its greatest defeat since the proclamation of the Republic when Turkey
was refused by the Luxembourg Summit to take place among the countries
eligible for EU membership although it has been an associate member of
the EU since 1963.
The Luxembourg Summit declared on December 13 that the candidate
countries who want to participate in the European Conference together
15 member countries should "share a common commitment for peace,
and good neighbourly relations, integrity and non-violability of the
borders and the international principles of law to solve their
through pacifist means, particularly through the jurisdiction of the
Court of Justice in the Hague."
"The states who will accept these criteria and the principles
above should be called to the conference. In the first count, the EU
invited Turkey, Cyprus and the ten candidates," the agreement said.
In the final report, Turkey is given a "policy of rapprochement"
under the title of "A European Strategy for Turkey." Under this
it is assured that Ankara will be judged by the main criteria as the
candidates, and adds that the EU will define a strategy that would
to accession in bringing it closer to the EU on all fields.
This strategy consists of a development of potentials of the
accord, the deepening of the customs union, the financial aid and the
of the legislations between the Turkey and the Union.
However, the following program says that the relations between
and the Union will be "in function of the economic and the political
of Turkey, particularly on the question of human rights, respect of
(added to the text the last moment) establishment of stable and normal
relations between Turkey and Greece and solving the differences through
the judicial ways, for example through the International Court of
and to solve the Cyprus problems through the resolutions of the UN
The immediate reaction of the government was to declare that
dialogue with the European Union was unilaterally suspended and that
would decline the invitation to the 12 March Conference. While Prime
Yilmaz was accusing the European Union of being a "Christians' club",
Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit went further by declaring that even
application of the Customs Union could be suspended as well.
As for the military, in a retaliation to EU decision, they
to tighten their attitude on its red and yellow lists. The Red List
countries from which Turkey will not purchase arms or accept tenders
military equipment) already includes Norway, Sweden, Switzerland,
Austria and South Africa. The Yellow List (denoting countries with
Turkey will carefully monitor its relations) already includes the
Germany, Luxembourg, Belgium and Finland.
The most mediatic one of the army chiefs, General Cevik Bir
that none of the EU countries has a regime as democratic as the one of
Turkey, accused them to support of Turkey's ennemies.
Whereas, the Luxembourg decisions should not have been a surprise
for the Turkish leadership. The European Commission had already
in July that Turkey would not take part among the countries eligible
EU membership unless three conditions are not fulfilled:
1. Full respect of human rights,
2. Seeking a political solution to the Kurdish Question,
3. Seeking peaceful solutions to its differences with Greece and
not obstructing Cyprus' adhesion to the European Union.
Since July, the military and their allies in parliament have not
taken any positive measure to fulfill these conditions.
The chronological notes at the other columns show that, instead
respecting human rights, in last four months:
- Kurdish members of parliament, journalists and artists were
- Just before the Luxembourg Summit, human rights activists like
Esber Yagmurdereli were imprisoned according to some anti-democratic
- The legal action to close down the Welfare Party (RP) was
- Many publications and books were confiscated, radio and
Instead of seeking a political solution to the Kurdish question,
the very existence of the Kurdish people was officially denied by the
Security Council; the military operations against Kurdish opposition
were extended as well in Turkey as in neighbour countries.
What is more, the Kurdish exodus started at the end of 1997 put
evidence the dramatic situation of the Kurdish people in Turkey and in
the Iraqi territories under Turkish military's harassment.
As for the questions as regards Cyprus and Aegean Sea, instead of
accepting Cyprus' membership and seeking peaceful solutions to the
with Greece, Turkish armed forces were mobilised against Cyprus and
on pretext of installation Russian S-300 anti-aircraft missiles in
part of the island.
As regards human rights and Kurdish Question, nothing has changed
in Ankara's hawkish attitude in the first two months of 1998 as well.
The Welfare Party (RP) was closed down, the leaders of the
Democracy Party (HADEP) were arrested and the National Security Council
(MGK) ordered the National Assembly to prolong emergency rule in six
provinces for four months starting on March 31.
"TURKISH ARMY CLEARS THE FIELD OF ISLAMISTS AND KURDS"
The following is a Reuter article on the recent situation in
published by the world media on February 27.
"One year after ordering a halt to the march of political Islam,
the country's secularist generals can take some satisfaction in having
made the country safe for democracy, Turkish-style
"The Islam-based Welfare Party (RP) has been banned and its
Necmettin Erbakan —the godfather of the modern Islamic movement— exiled
from politics after one year as prime minister. A successor party faces
legal threats and a crippling internal power struggle.
"A second assault, lightning arrests earlier this month of the
of the country's main legal Kurdish party, HADEP, further secured the
centre as represented by mainstream parties of "left" and "right".
"As they gathered for a National Security Council meeting on
almost one year to the day since they launched a campaign against the
the force commanders can find the Islamists interregnum little more
an unpleasant memory. The Turkish prime minister is once again welcome
in the White House, ties with Israel are stronger than ever, the
remains anchored to NATO and the authorities are enforcing bans on
classes and Islamic forms of dress. But a number of critics and
say the result is a politics stripped of debate on some of the most
issues of the day and millions of voters effectively disenfranchised.
the Flag of Political Bankruptcy,' taunted the pro-Kurdish daily
Gündem, charging the army with gutting Turkey's body politic.
"'Take away the Islamists and the Kurds and what do you have
asked one Western diplomat. 'The answer: not much. On many issues the
parties are virtually identical. And who will represent all those
"Turkey's population of 62 million is about 99 percent Moslem, a
significant portion of whom are demanding a role for their religion in
"The last general elections, in late 1995, saw Welfare and the
People's Democratic Party (HADEP) between them garner almost 26 percent
of the popular vote. In the absence of reliable polls, it is difficult
to judge their current strength. A leading human rights campaigner says
the attack against Welfare and, later, HADEP reflect a unified strategy
on the part of a political establishment steeped in secularism and
"'These two parties did not remain within the boundaries set by
state, so they were either banned or their members arrested,' Akin
told Reuters. 'These events are actually the result of a mentality
says: Either you behave in line with me and within my boundaries or I
allow you to exist at all.'
"Turkey's brass launched their 'soft coup' against Welfare leader
and then-Prime Minister Erbakan on February 28, 1997, at a meeting of
National Security Council. The army brought down three earlier civilian
governments by force.
This time they used the Council, charged with defence and
by fellow soldiers, to undermine Erbakan in retaliation for a series of
modest Islamist initiatives. He was forced to resign in June.
Last month the constitutional court banned Erbakan and his
Party, a verdict that took effect on February 22. A week before,
ordered the arrest of the HADEP leaders on charges of links to armed
Perhaps less comfortable than the generals with the results of
'creeping coup' of February 28, 1997, is its most visible beneficiary,
current Prime Minister Mesut Yilmaz.
"Yilmaz took over from Erbakan last summer, at the head of a
coalition confronting runaway inflation, moribund economic reforms and
strained relations with Europe. The prime minister, a cautious
in the post for the third time, has found his hands tied by heavy
on a social democratic party that remains outside the government. That,
say analysts, could force Yilmaz and his Motherland Party (ANAP) to
the wrath of the generals and some elements of his cabinet by seeking
to the Islamists in a bid for future support.
"Already there are hints he may use the Security Council meeting
to do just that.
"'ANAP has been softening its line on (Islamic style) headscarves
and the Koran courses. Their aim is to steal Welfare votes,' said
commentator Bilal Cetin."
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN 1997
The following one-year statistics about human rights
Turkey were taken from the Human Rights Association of Turkey (IHD):
* 109 people died in unsolved murders.
* 114 people lost their lives through execution without trial,
torture or while in custody.
* 2,514 people died in armed clashes.
* Attacks on civilians left 151 dead and 239 injured.
* 66 people "disappeared" while in custody.
* 366 people were tortured or claimed to have been tortured.
* 27,308 people were taken into police custody.
* 1,273 people were placed under arrest by courts.
* 23 villages and hamlets were evacuated.
* 127 locations were bombed.
* Right to work was violated 13,226 times.
* 153 associations, trade unions, press agencies and political
* 213 associations, trade unions, press agencies and political
* 298 members of the press were taken into police custody
* 278 publications were confiscated.
* Prosecutors demanded a total of 893 years and 8 months
and TL 3 billion 200 million in fine for opinions.
* Courts pronounced a total of 259 years and 4 months
and a total of TL 64 billion 885 million in fine for opinions.
* At the end of 1997, there were 105 prisoners of conscience in
TURKISH PRESS IN 1977
The Turkish Press Council stated that the year 1997 has been full of
prevention measures, detentions, and arrests for the Turkish press.
year, the owner of a radio station was killed, three journalists were
to armed attacks, 96 journalists were taken into custody and 16
In the explanation of the Press Council, it was claimed that the
Turkish press experienced its most difficult, problematic phase since
embraced the democratic system, during the RP-DYP coalition. In that
the members of the Refahyol government threatened the newspapers and
stations. Press institutions were closed and censorship threatened.
mafia groups raided some TV studios, with the encouragement of the
The press had hoped that these conditions would change with the
of the Mesut Yilmaz government, but in a short period all the hopes had
As for the Journalists' Trade Union of Turkey (TGS), the number
journalists detained in 1997 was 211. In the same year, 143 journalists
were harassed or beaten, the offices of 27 newspapers, magazines or
and television were attacked and three book shops destroyed. 109
or periodicals were confiscated.
Tribunals banned the publication of 21 journals or periodicals
a total of 28 months and 20 days. A periodical was closed down
Besides, the Higher Board of Radio-Television (RTUK) banned 37 times TV
broadcastings and 20 times radio broadcastings.
At the trials against journalists and writers, tribunals
a total of 137 years and 6 months in prison and a total of TL 69.1
FROM WELFARE (RP) TO VIRTUE (FP)
* The Constitutional Court outlaws the pro-Islamic Welfare Party
(RP) and bans its leader, former Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan,
with five other deputies from political leadership for five years. "The
court decided to close the Welfare Party because of evidence confirming
its actions against the principles of the secular republic," Chief
Ahmet Necdet Sezer discloses. Reacting to the court decision, Erbakan
on his followers to remain calm, and Erbakan said the court verdict is
a "serious judicial error" and vows to take the case to the European
* The United States says banning the Welfare Party damages
in the NATO ally's democratic system.
* European Union (EU) president Britain voices concern over the
against the Welfare Party and says it would urgently consult with its
partners. "We are concerned at the implications for democratic
and freedom of expression and will be urgently discussing the closure
Welfare with our EU partners," Britain announces.
* Islamic leader Necmettin Erbakan strongly criticised the
Court for disbanding his party and imposing a five-year ban on his
career. "What kind of justice is this?" Erbakan told supporters at a
in Istanbul. "They are judging us, but there is no crime. They fill a
with newspaper clippings and present it as evidence."
* Erbakan vows again that new movements will be formed to take
place. "I leave you to the hands of Allah [God] until we meet again
the light of a great Turkey which will be enacted soon," Erbakan,
at a news conference, told the nation.
* The EU expresses its dismay at Turkey's banning of the
Welfare Party (Refah). "The European Union notes with regret the
of the Turkish Constitutional Court ... to order the closure of the
Party, to confiscate its property and to ban certain present and former
members of that party from being members of the Turkish Parliament or
further political activity for five years," the EU presidency says in a
* The Constitutional Court ruling, providing its justification in
respect to the closure of the Welfare Party (RP), was published in the
Official Gazette, putting an end to the RP's 14-year-old political
The closure of Welfare was coupled with a political ban on six of its
members, including chairman Necmettin Erbakan. They are expected to
prosecution for supporting Islamic fundamentalism and opposing the
system in Turkey.
* Forty-one deputies of the defunct Welfare Party (RP) joined the
Virtue Party (FP), thus enabling this party to form a parliamentary
The FP had been founded on December 10 by several former
candidates of the RP.
* The number of newcomers to the FP rose to 91. Abdullah
a leading RP member who joined the newcomers, said that the new party
carry reformist views, such as allowing women to take part in the party
administration, and embracing the liberal masses.
* The Virtue Party (FP) continued to swell as new members from
banned Welfare Party joined it. The number of members has already
100, making it the main opposition party in the Parliament. Istanbul's
Islamist Mayor Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced that he would switch to
* Members of the North Atlantic Assembly's Civil Affairs
met the leader of the recently banned Welfare Party (RP), Necmettin
who himself was booted out of Parliament and barred from political
for five years for anti-secular activities.
RP: 21st POLITICAL PARTY BANNED
The Welfare Party (RP) is the 21st political party banned in
Before the establishment of the Constitutional Court, two parties were
banned by the Criminal Court
The Constitutional Court which was established by the 1960
concluded all six of the party closure cases with an official decision
up until the 1980 military coup. The parties banned by the
Court before 1980 are as follows:
The Worker-Farmer Party (ICP), the National Order Party (MNP),
Turkey Future Ideal Party (TIUP), the Workers' Party of Turkey (TIP),
Great Anatolia Party (BAP) and the Labour Party of Turkey (TEP).
The 15 parties which have been banned since 1983 are as follows:
The Great Anatolia Party (closed twice), the Socialist Party, the
Greens Party, the People's Party, the United Communist Party of Turkey,
the People's Labor Party, the Freedom Democracy Party, the Socialist
Party, the Democracy Party, the Democrat Party (closed twice), the
and Change Party, the Revival Party, the Labor Party, the Socialist
Party and the Welfare Party.
The lawsuit opened against the Democratic Mass Party (DKP) is
continuing in the Constitutional Court.
IMPRISONMENT INDEXED TO RELATIONS WITH EU!
The Court of Cassation rejects an appeal from Playwright and
Esber Yagmurdereli, 52, against a 10-month prison sentence for
propaganda." Yagmurdereli, who is blind, had been sentenced to a
prison term which was finalised on 16 September 1997. He had been
for a speech made in September 1991 in which he accused the authorities
of human rights abuses against the Kurds. Yagmurdereli was previously
in 1978 and served with a life sentence on political charges during
time he was elected an Honorary Member of several PEN centres. He was
freed under the terms of an April 1991 amnesty. However, his freedom
not unconditional and was reliant on him not being convicted of another
political offence. If so, he would be required to serve the remainder
his sentence. A life sentence is considered to be the equivalent of 36
years in prison. Yagmurdereli will therefore have to serve the
22 years and six months of his previous life sentence, as well as the
ten-month prison term.
Esber Yagmurdereli was arrested at his home in Istanbul by the
Security Directorate Public Order Department. He was taken to the
offices in Gayrettepe, Istanbul where he was held for two days before
being transferred to a prison in Cankiri
Turkish authorities, in a move to fool European public opinion,
human rights activist Esber Yagmurdereli from prison on medical grounds.
The public prosecutor of Cankiri issued a new warrant for
again human rights activist Esber Yagmurdereli on pretext that he
to go to medical examination. He had been released on November 9 on
The Writers in Prison Committee of International PEN is deeply
by the reversal of the suspension of execution of the 22-year prison
against Esber Yagmurdereli. Yagmurdereli immediately went into hiding.
A NEW CONTROVERSIAL REPORT ON THE SUSURLUK
A controversial report prepared by special investigator Kutlu
under orders from the prime minister Mesut Yilmaz was presented to the
media on January 23, 1998, as a big success of the government in
corruption and obscure relations.
Although many critics claim that there is nothing new in the
at least for reminding again, we are reprinting some important points
by the report:
Struggle against terrorism
The report noted the public's concern over the discovery of
activities that focused attention on the alleged relationship between
and the underworld. The purpose of these activities is to gain money,
and power, the report said. "It is also disturbing that these illegal
are covered up as being actions in the struggle against terrorism," it
Meanwhile the report stressed that "all institutions" of the
were aware of these illegal activities. The lack of control over the
institutions was revealed to the public after the Susurluk accident.
that were considered state secrets began to appear in newspapers. This
was the most important indicator of the lack of dedication within state
Concerning the chain of murders which took place in the area
the provinces of Izmit, Adapazari and Bolu, the report said that
officials, including the police and gendarmerie officers, along with
admitted members of terrorist organizations —who were allegedly
in the murders—were all still concentrated in that area. "Those who
these murders did not even bother to move other places, and the horror
they created became the biggest proof of their strength."
"The state was silent"
The report also accused the state of keeping silent regarding its
infiltration by illegal gangs. Most of the blame was bestowed upon the
National Intelligence Organization (MIT) and the Security Department,
between them employ more than 150,000 police officers. It held these
responsible for failing to cope with a few rogues who had acquired
The report warned that there is a possibility that the illegal
may get out of control unless the state makes comprehensive reforms. It
blamed the state institutions again for the inability to carry out
tasks in a professional manner. "The existence of so many opposing
within the same body is because of the emergence of fields of illegal
created by this chaos. The officials concerned were unable to prevent
development of these activities so they supported them instead. These
remained hidden until the Susurluk accident."
Catli left DM 2 million to his family
Abdullah Catli, the right-wing terrorist suspect at the centre of
the controversy surrounding the Susurluk accident, was also discussed
the report. " Catli's fingerprints were found at the site where the
casino king, Omer Lütfü Topal, was murdered. There is also
fact that Catli' left his family DM 2 million, and investigations are
to discover what happened to the millions of dollars that were extorted
from Topal," the report said. It also suggested that all of the Catli
need to be disclosed. The report also drew attention to Catli's alleged
links with the police officers who were believed to have murdered
and with the Istanbul Security Directorate.
"Ersever was not murdered by Yesil"
One section of the report discussed the unsolved murder of
gendarmerie officer Ahmet Cem Ersever, also an intelligence officer. It
clearly objected to claims by the MIT that Hanefi Avci, the deputy head
of the Intelligence branch of the Security
Department, appointed Mahmut Yildirim— code-named "Yesil"— to
It also objected to the claims that Avci contacted Ersever's girl
friend, Nevval Boz, and his aide, Mustafa Deniz, before killing the
The report blasted Yesil, who claimed to have killed Ersever,
he exhibited a low and uncivilised attitude that was only aimed at
his personal interests.
Topal murder carried out by gang
The Susurluk report links the 1996 murder of the so-called casino
king, Omer Lutfu Topal to the elite police forces. "Topal served a
sentence from 1979-84 for smuggling drugs and rata, in 1990, he began
carry out business with Israeli partners," the report said, without
the type of the "business." The report underlined that the yearly
of Topal's chain of companies was $1.1 billion. It was also noted that
Topal carried out various business activities in Azerbaijan and
The report said that Topal took an active role in helping the
Path Party in an attempt to prevent the reelection of Mesut Yilmaz, the
current prime minister, as the deputy from the eastern Anatolian city
Rize. Topal also gave financial assistance to Yilmaz's rival.
The report said the first information about the Topal murder
links with the elite police teams was obtained from a special. note
by MlT's Istanbul branch to the city's security directorate.
It also underline special links between Topal and Mehmet Agar.
to the earlier claims, Agar had had Topal investigated on his possible
links with the Kurdish nationalists. After learning that he was being
Topal asked for more Protection from the police He was said to have
Orhan Tasanlar, the former Istanbul police chief, a gift worth TL 250
but his request was turned down by Tasanlar, causing him to panic.
Kutlu Savas, stated in the Susurluk report that Topal was killed
in July 1997 when suspicions against him were at their peak. It said
had been forced to pay $17 million to his alleged murderers, but he was
told that the money never reached its intended destination, even though
the payment was made. Right-wing terrorist Abdullah Catli's
were recovered at the site of Topal's murder.
Ozer Çiller and plans to kill PKK leader
Certain sections of the Susurluk report prepared by Kutlu Savas
the alleged role of Ozer Çiller, the husband of former Prime
Tansu Çiller, in its description of the state-mafia links,
in the parts about the struggle against terrorism and the restructuring
"There were radical changes made in the structure of the police
intelligence institutions in the second half of 1993, following the
of the head of government. Following Tansu Çiller's coming to
a "hawkish attitude" dominated the country's anti-terrorism policy, the
report added. It also stressed that the appointment of Mehmet Agar as
chief of the Security Department also took place in this period.
The report also emphasized that Ozer Çiller had relations
with Mehmet Eymur, the head of MIT's counter terrorism branch, who
at odds with Mehmet Agar. Eymur was said to have submitted his reports
to and received orders from the prime minister's husband, instead of
On the other hand, the security organization headed by Mehmet
acquired immense power with the support of the then-Prime Minister
"The police organization undertook important project such as the
[and killing] of PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan," the report said.
Also, the intelligence organizations were engaged in several
projects to keep track of the extreme left-wing terrorist leader,
Karatas, in Britain, Belgium and the Netherlands. "For this purpose,
cooperated with drug lord Nurettin Guven to pursue Karatas," the report
said. It also added that MIT had allocated $12.5 billion from the slush
fund to carry out the above operations and transferred the funds to the
Security Department. "Since it was known that allocations from the
fund were always approved by the prime minister, it was never
how and why this money was reserved.
Later, this amount was increased to an amount between $40 billion
and $50 billion dollars." said the report.
"A report to cover up the Susurluk mess?"
The Susurluk Report has led a big scandal and tension in
with Azerbaijan and Prime Minister Mesut Yilmaz had, in the end, to
to Azerbaijani President Haydar Aliyev.
In the report it is claimed that Aliyev's son had owed money to
slain casino king Ömer Lütfü Topal. Besides, the report
says that Turkish intelligence service were directly involved in the
of a coup d'état against President Aliyev in 1995. An agent of
National Intelligence Organization (MIT) had a talk with
former president Ebulfeyz Elcibey and determined the names of the
who would serve in the government following the coup.
On the reaction of Aliyev, President Demirel personally contacted
him for assuring that Turkey had no relations with this coup and Prime
Minister Yilmaz had to publicly apologize to Aliyev.
The Turkish Daily News editor Ilnur Cevik, in his article of
26, 1998, said the report seems to be designed to create a smoke screen
preventing the nation from seeing the real mess.
Below is an extract of this article:
"For a whole week we have been witnessing a rather unfruitful
concerning the Susurluk revelations of a report commissioned by Prime
Mesut Yilmaz and prepared by Kutlu Savas... We waited for the dust to
and to hear what everyone had to say on this issue before making any
Now we feel the time has come to speak out.
"For a whole week we have seen many people being accused of
crimes. The only thing we have not seen, in fact, is the crux of the
the real linkages between state officials, politicians and mobsters.
"Kutlu Savas is the former top security official who prepared a
report for the late Turgut Ozal on fictitious exports, which was as
as the current Susurluk report he has prepared.
"As matter of fact, even the way the report was made public is
farcical. The prime minister chose to reveal the report in a special
called Arena on private TV Channel D instead of either announcing it on
the state owned TRT channels or at a press conference.
"Why he selected such an unconventional method is a mystery...
"Yilmaz has been saying repeatedly that he will get to the bottom
of the Susurluk scandal even if it costs him his government seat. When
he was prime minister for three months in early 1996 he even said he
have revealed everything about Susurluk if he had managed to stay in
another 15 days.
"Yilmaz has been in power for more than six months, yet the
still remains in the dark about the Susurluk scandal. The report should
have revealed who ordered the creation of gangs within the state. It
have unearthed the state officials who protected these gangs. This was
not the case.
"No one bothers to question why and how the state officials
to set up death squads. They do not even want to debate whether the
should be allowed to kill its 'opponents.'
"All that the report does is to try to place the blame of state
death squads on former Prime Minister Tansu Ciller. Thus the report
about events since 1993 but does not touch upon the activities of these
gangs before that date, when Tansu Ciller was not in power.
"The revelations are designed to smear Ciller but make sure that
past events and the roots of the death squads are never revealed.
"President Süleyman Demirel called the TV program where
revealed the 'findings' of the Susurluk report 'a feast,' but later
this was a great mistake. The report not only accused Ciller of backing
the death squads and their illegal activities but also showed that the
leaders of Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan were also involved in corruption
"The leaders of both Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan were furious
the allegations and President Haydar Aliyev has threatened to call off
a visit to Ankara... So Demirel, too, has realised the 'feast' is now
"Yilmaz has ordered more investigations into Susurluk. However,
these probes continue along the guidelines drawn in the report by
then we may be wasting our time. Yilmaz should show the courage to get
to the bottom of the death squad issue and tell the nation what has
in this country during the past sixteen years or so.
TWO WAYS OF WELCOMING CHRISTIANS!
During a symposium on "Religion, Science and Environment" in
Christian delegates and particularly Greek Orthodox Patriarch
were attacked by ultra-nationalist groups shouting "Trabzon will be the
grave of the priest," "The Black Sea is Turkish and will remain
"Go back" and "If our blood is split, the victory is Islam's." (Turkish
Daily News, 3.10.1997)
On the eve of the new millennium, Turkey is developing plans to
maximum benefit thanks to "faith tourism." As Vatican makes
for a grand celebration of the 2000th anniversary of Christ's birth,
decided to organize "Faith Tours." in historic sites and relics of
Many critics describe this initiative scandalous in a country where
have systematically been oppressed. (Milliyet, 8.2.1998)
This page created with Netscape Navigator Goldhazs